RESCUE OPERATION

Rescue comprises responsive operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury during an incident or dangerous situation.

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Tools used might include search and rescue dogs, mounted search and rescue horses, helicopters, the “jaws of life”, and other hydraulic cutting and spreading tools used to extricate individuals from wrecked vehicles. Rescue operations are sometimes supported by special vehicles such as fire department’s or EMS heavy rescue vehicle.

Overview
Ropes and special devices can reach and remove individuals and animals from difficult locations including:

Air-sea rescue
Cave rescue
Combat search and rescue
Confined space rescue
Mine rescue
Rope rescue
Search and rescue
Ski patrol
Surface water rescue
Swiftwater rescue
Urban search and rescue
Vehicle extrication
Wilderness
Rescue operations require a high degree of training and are performed by rescue squads, either independent or part of larger organizations such as fire, police, military, first aid, or ambulance service.

More on rescue operations check Rescue Operation For a Collapsed Building

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54 thoughts on “RESCUE OPERATION”

    1. Rescue operations require a high degree of training and are performed by rescue squads, either independent or part of larger organizations such as fire, police, military, first aid, or ambulance service.

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    1. Rescue operation can involve;
      Fire hazards
      Air-sea rescue
      Cave rescue
      Combat search and rescue
      Confined space rescue
      Rope rescue
      Search and rescue
      Ski patrol
      Surface water rescue
      Vehicle extrication
      Wilderness

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    1. Rope rescue is a subset of technical rescue that involves the use of rope, be it steel or cable rope, or more commonly used nylon, polyester, or other type of rope.
      Mine rescue or mines rescue is the specialised job of rescuing miners and others who have become trapped or injured in underground mines because of mining accidents, roof falls or floods and disasters such as explosions caused by firedamp.
      Cave rescue is a highly specialized field of wilderness rescue in which injured, trapped or lost cave explorers are medically treated and extracted from various cave environments. Cave rescue borrows elements from firefighting, confined space rescue, rope rescue and mountaineering techniques but has also developed its own special techniques and skills for performing work in conditions that are almost always difficult and demanding.

      Reference: Wikipedia

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    1. The first step is to save lives
      Ensure there is comprehensive back-up and support both on land, offshore and in the air.
      Provide medical care for those injured
      Provide comfort and emotional support to families and friends of passengers.
      investigate the cause of the accident.
      Make sure that information regarding the rescue effort is released on time and that it is accurate and transparent.

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        1. Hello, Thanks for contacting us, Situations that require rescue operation are;
          Fire hazards
          Air-sea rescue
          Cave rescue
          Combat search and rescue
          Confined space rescue
          Rope rescue
          Search and rescue
          Ski patrol
          Surface water rescue
          Vehicle extrication
          Wilderness

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            1. The basic extrication procedure constitutes, but is not limited to, these six steps:

              the protection of the incident scene, to avoid a risk of another collision (marking out the scene with cones or flares (inadvisable if gasoline is leaking), lighting) and of fire (e.g. switching off the ignition, putting vehicle in park, disconnecting the battery, placing absorbing powder on oil and gasoline pools, fire extinguisher and fire hose ready to use); It is very common to use emergency vehicles as road blockers at crash scenes.
              patient triage and initial medical assessment of the patient by a qualified medical rescuer;
              securing the vehicle (see cribbing), to prevent the unexpected movement (e.g. falling in a ditch), and the movements of the suspension, either of which could cause an unstable trauma wound or cause injury to the rescuers; a vehicle should never be moved, it should always be secured.
              the opening of the vehicle and the deformation of the structure (such as removing a window) to allow the intervention of a first responder, of a paramedic or of a physician inside the vehicle to better assess the patient and begin care and also to release a possible pressure on the casualty;
              removal of a section of the vehicle (usually the roof or door) to allow for safe removal of the victim, especially respecting the head-neck-back axis (rectitude of the spine);
              removal of the person from the vehicle

              Ref: Wikipedia

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        1. Cave rescue is a highly specialized field of wilderness rescue in which injured, trapped or lost cave explorers are medically treated and extracted from various cave environments. Cave rescue borrows elements from firefighting, confined space rescue, rope rescue and mountaineering techniques but has also developed its own special techniques and skills for performing work in conditions that are almost always difficult and demanding.

          Ref: [Wikipedia]

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        1. Personal as relates to characteristics of the individual,
          1. Empathy and Emotional Intelligence:,
          2. Patience and Presence of mind
          3. Spirit of service

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    1. Steps to vehicle rescue operation:
      i. Analyze the loads.
      ii. Apply primary stabilization.
      iii. Develop primary and secondary action plans for extrication.
      iv. Apply secondary stabilization.
      v. Implement extrication plan.

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  1. I want to know 5 steps involved in environmental rescue operation .
    U have to answers my question fast, please

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    1. The following are the steps involved in Environmental rescue operation:
      i. Working area must be established to be safe in order to prevent injury to self and others.
      ii. Organized standards and procedures should be put in place to prevent movement of vehicles during access of people and people are restricted to move or cross the express road.
      iii. Hazards should be minimized during the rescue operation to prevent injury to self or others.
      iv. Scene management procedures should be followed in accordance with organizational procedures and legal requirements.
      v. The violent scene is prepared to facilitate the prompt and safe rescue of casualties

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    1. Rescue operation is required in the following dangerous situations,
      1. When trapped in a confined space
      2. Accidents in enclosed space on ships
      3. For persons who are lost or in distress on land or inland waterways
      4. Cave explorer who are injured, trapped or lost in a cave
      5. For sailors and passengers in distress, or the survivors of downed aircraft

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    1. Premier Li Keqiang held an emergency mid-flight meeting and proposed nine steps to enhance rescue efforts as he flew to the scene of the ferry disaster on June 2.
      The first step was to save lives. Li urged to ensure that rescue teams had adeqaute equipment to conduct their mission, including specialized boats, steel-cutting equipment to access the upturned hull and oxygen supplies to pump into ths ship. The Premier made sure that professional divers were dispatched immediately to the scene.
      The second step was to guarantee that search and rescue teams had comprehensive back-up and support both on land, offshore and in the air.
      Providing top-rate medical care for those rescued was the third step. This included the deployment of medical workers for emergency treatment. Members of the public should also assist rescue operations, especially by scanning the river banks.
      The establishment of a rescue headquarters by the State Council, with Vice-Premier Ma Kai as chief commander was the fourth step. The headquarters will plan and coordinate with various ministries, the PLA, police, and local rescue authorities.
      A frontline rescue command center was the fifth step to ensure an efficient and co-ordinated operation.
      The sixth step entails dealing with the aftermath of the disaster, especially providing comfort and emotional support to families and friends of passengers.
      Setting up a rescue fund and making sure that financial assistance arrives on time is the seventh step.
      The eighth step is to investigate the cause of the accident.
      The ninth step is to make sure that information regarding the rescue effort is released on time and that it is accurate and transparent.
      Reference: http://english.www.gov.cn/premier/news/2015/06/02/content_281475119540653.htm

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    1. Expanded Five Stages of Rescue
      by Ken Snider
      STAGE 1
      The first stage is Reconnaissance which is divided into two parts, Information and Observation.
      The Information part is the gathering and documenting all of the available data to assist in making
      an intelligent rescue action plan. This Data should include:
      • Time and all factors surrounding the collapse.
      • Numbers of persons suspected in building at the time of collapse.
      • Type of structure, date built, if blueprints are available, and if so, where.
      • Hazards known, and what can and is being done about them.
      • Service locations of power, water, gas, etc.
      • Number of persons who made it out before the structure collapsed and how they got out.
      • Number of persons who got out after collapse and how they got out, as well as the
      damage and injuries they noticed.
      • Local knowledge, is it available about the building, if so, who and where.
      • If a disaster plan was used during the collapse and it’s success.
      • Locations of dense populations in the building for that time of day.
      • Resources that could be used to assist in the rescue operation: tools, medical kits, fire
      equipment, etc.
      • Available rescuers and resources that are onsite now.
      • Rescue resources that will be onsite and when
      • Rescue resources that can be called in and how.
      • Any other information that can be gathered prior to entering structure.
      After the Information phase has started the Observation phase begins. The Observation phase
      requires that trained personnel survey the entire building looking for any clues as to stability,
      hazards, areas of entrapment and possible entry points. This data is passed on to the
      information personnel who record it for the rescue meeting which will take place prior to the
      commencement of Stage 3.
      During the Information / Observation phase [Stage 1] while the exterior is being surveyed, the
      other half of the team gears up for stage 2.

      When the personnel working on Stage 1 have completed the exterior of the building they move
      into the building with the Stage 2 personnel allowing the two stages to be carried out concurrently
      to save time. Inside the building the reconnaissance of information and observation continue as
      the Stage 2 personnel go to work.
      STAGE 2
      As the Stage 1 staff record all building data such as hazards and stability, the Stage 2 personnel
      mark exit routes and get walking wounded in the correct direction to get out to the triage area.
      Stage 2 personnel are also responsible for the assessment regarding victims trapped in the
      building. They will document and mark [spray paint] the locations and degree of entrapment of the
      trapped victims.

      No rescue is carried out in Stage 2 other than assisting the walking wounded to the triage area in
      the safe zone. This is because a large picture must be developed prior to rescuing anyone in the
      collapse, to ensure the right resources get to the most easily accessible persons first.
      Save as many (as fast as we can) before spending 15 hours for one person requiring 75 ton air
      bags.
      The Stage 1 + 2 teams will only search out the locations of surface casualties. They will not waste
      time by attempting to search under the debris and into areas which will require specialty gear and
      personnel.
      Speed with caution is the goal of Stage 1 + 2 so that a proper plan can be formulated for rescue.
      It should be noted that both teams should be noting all materials and supplies that can be used
      for the next stages, such as:
      • Fire Extinguishers, Fire Hose, Fire Blankets, Axes [found in fire station cabinets]
      • Carpet, Wire, Nails, Screws, Tools
      • Wood, Building Supplies
      • Doors [that can be used as stretchers]
      • Ladders, Scaffolding
      • Spray Paint, Tape
      • Furniture suitable for cribbing
      • Emergency Lights [{still usable} shut them off so they may be useful later unless it will
      hinder the walking wounded]
      • First Aid Kits and Medical Supplies
      • Food and Drinking Water
      All teams entering the building will be assigned a search direction and area. In regards to Stage 1
      + 2 teams, they will be given the entire accessible building with the first team in, going always to
      the right and the second always going to the left. This is the means for a safe form of navigation
      inside a hostile, dangerous and very dark environment.

      In theory the two teams containing both Stage 1 + 2 personnel will meet and the end of Stage 1 +
      2 will be at hand.
      Once Stages 1 + 2 have been completed, the teams will meet with the rescue manager outside at
      the safe zone, and brief all rescue management staff.
      While Stages 1 + 2 where going on inside, the rescue staff outside gathered all able bodied
      survivors and put them to work setting up the safe zone.

      The safe zone has a four level triage area [critical, stable, minor wounds {walking wounded},
      dead], a staging area for equipment and personnel, communications area [radio, briefing,
      debriefing, P.A. etc.], rest shelters, and volunteer assignment area, with the appropriate
      personnel staffing each one [volunteers].

      At the meeting, the rescue staff must be briefed and regrouped after the Stage 1 + 2 information
      has been placed into the rescue action plan and then, and only then, may Stage 3 begin.
      STAGE 3
      Stage 3 involves the further exploration of survival points. The teams are now sent to the densely
      populated areas inside the building which only light entrapment is suspected. The stage 3 teams
      will take with them a very long line up of volunteers, all given single simple tasks.
      These tasks are:
      • Stretcher bearers [marked on their clothes with “S” front and back]
      • Debris haulers
      • Runners [marked with “R” front and back]
      • Tool persons
      Since there are so many persons that want to help and so much menial labour to be done, the
      volunteers are named with their function, and are taught only one task.
      The Stretcher bearers use doors or whatever and transport all persons pulled out by the Stage 3
      teams to triage, then return to the end of the line, following the rescue team.

      The Debris haulers form human chains to move small amounts of debris to the outside.
      The Runners [in pairs of two] act as messengers keeping rescue base outside informed of the
      teams progress and requirements [as radios will be in high demand].

      Tool people, their job is to bring the item they keep with them at all times to the rescuers when
      called for. These persons are called by tool name thus preventing the need for the rescue team
      leaders to have to remember the volunteers names. When a tool or tools [hand tools] are required
      the team leader simple calls out that tool’s name and it will come to him. Once the tool is done
      with, the volunteer caring for it takes it, and goes back behind the Stage 3 search team.
      The job of the Stage 3 search team is to get only lightly [very lightly] entrapped and unable to
      walk victims out, and locate and document voids that persons may be trapped in. These voids will
      not be searched at this time but will be well marked and documented for the next stages of the
      rescue.
      The primary goal of the Stage 3 teams is to find and remove all surface causalities.
      All Stage 3 teams should be in the safe zone prior to starting Stage 4. Most of the saveable
      casualties will be saved in Stage 3 if time is not spent attempting to get at trapped persons
      [voids].
      It is imperative that the volunteers be equipped with the basic safety items to prevent wasting
      resources on helping them and that they are appropriately chosen for the task they are given to
      carry out.
      STAGE 4
      Stage 4 involves exploration of voids and selected debris removal.

      The Stage 4 personnel will go to the highest probability of survival areas identified by the Stage 3
      teams, starting with the area suspected to have the highest number of entrapped persons first.
      Once at these locations they will start a subsurface search for survivors.
      The search usually starts with a call and listen. A call and listen is carried out with voice or
      hammer. With the hammer method a pipe or beam appearing to go into the void in question
      which would transmit vibrations is struck solidly three times then a minute of silence is observed
      by all in the team.

      If required, the Stage 4 team will use small tools and light hydraulics for selected debris removal
      to gain access to the voids.

      Stage 4 teams will document any areas that will require further exploration with heavy equipment
      or rescue specialists. The same types of volunteers will be needed to follow the trained rescuers
      as were used in Stage 3.

      Often it is this stage that electronic subsurface search gear is used and those personnel
      operating this type of equipment will have special demands of the search teams. This must be
      discussed at the team briefing prior to starting the search areas.
      Stage 4 will require advanced urban search technicians, as they will be venturing into unstable
      areas of the building, and may be required to use technical equipment such as: S.C.B.A.,
      Sniffers, Rope Gear, etc.
      STAGE 5
      Stage 5 requires all teams evacuate the building and only one Stage 5 team is usually allowed to
      work in the structure at one time. This is due to the heavy equipment that will be used to gain
      access to all voids and subsurface areas that may contain casualties, alive or dead.
      The main objective of the highly trained Stage 5 rescuers is to systematically remove debris to
      gain access to the remaining victims.
      The areas identified by the Stage 4 search teams will be prioritized by the rescue manager, then
      access will be gained to these areas via appropriate means, such as:
      • Heavy debris removal with Hydraulics.
      • Trenching or Tunnelling using cutting tools.
      • Lifting or moving large masses with crane or backhoe.
      • Forcing with Air Bags.
      • Burning through walls with Electric Oxygen Plasma Cutters
      • etc.
      Stage 5 continues with constant assessment of the structures stability. If stability is being lost, the
      building is shored up and the stability is maintained throughout the operation.
      When all the Stage 5 operations are complete, a thorough search is conducted of the entire
      building. If the search proves negative to any possibility of any persons alive or dead being in the
      building, then the rescue manager will have the structure secured and sealed, ready for
      demolition.
      The rescue unit may move to the next site. To save the most lives if many buildings are involved
      the heavy rescue teams will leave all Stage 5 work until all buildings have been done up to Stage
      4. This is due to the incredible amount of time and resources that have to be spent on a Stage 5
      operation for few results.
      There is not much logic in digging out bodies while survivors are dying in another building, lightly
      entrapped.

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  2. Are the five steps involved in rescue operation the same thing as the five aspect of rescue operation? If yes, tell me it’s correct. If no, tell me the five steps involved in rescue operation. Thanks.

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    1. There are different aspects to rescue operation based on the situation. Considering rescue operation on a collapsed building, the aspects will be:
      STAGE 1
      The first stage is Reconnaissance which is divided into two parts, Information and Observation. The Information part is the gathering and documenting all of the available data to assist in making an intelligent rescue action plan.
      After the Information phase has started the Observation phase begins. The Observation phase requires that trained personnel survey the entire building looking for any clues as to stability, hazards, areas of entrapment and possible entry points.
      STAGE 2
      As the Stage 1 staff record all building data such as hazards and stability, the Stage 2 personnel mark exit routes and get walking wounded in the correct direction to get out to the triangle area.
      STAGE 3
      Stage 3 involves the further exploration of survival points. The teams are now sent to the densely populated areas inside the building which only light entrapment is suspected.
      STAGE 4
      Stage 4 involves exploration of voids and selected debris removal. The Stage 4 personnel will go to the highest probability of survival areas identified by the Stage 3 teams, starting with the area suspected to have the highest number of entrapped persons first. Once at these locations they will start a subsurface search for survivors.
      STAGE 5
      Stage 5 requires all teams evacuate the building and only one Stage 5 team is usually allowed to work in the structure at one time. This is due to the heavy equipment that will be used to gain access to all voids and subsurface areas that may contain casualties, alive or dead.
      The main objective of the highly trained Stage 5 rescuers is to systematically remove debris to again access to the remaining victims.

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    1. Rescue comprises responsive operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury during an incident or dangerous situation.
      Tools used might include search and rescue dogs, mounted search and rescue horses, helicopters, the “jaws of life”, and other hydraulic cutting and spreading tools used to extricate individuals from wrecked vehicles. Rescue operations are sometimes supported by special vehicles such as fire department’s or EMS heavy rescue vehicle.
      Rescue operations cover:
      the handling of emergency calls
      the issuing of warnings to the public
      the combating of impending accidents
      the protection of people, property and the environment against danger, and the rescue of accident victims
      the extinguishing of fires and damage limitation
      command, communication, service and other support functions relating to these tasks.

      Air-sea rescue is the coordinated search and rescue (SAR) of the survivors of emergency water landings as well as people who have survived the loss of their seagoing vessel. ASR can involve a wide variety of resources including seaplanes, helicopters, submarines, rescue boats and ships. Specialized equipment and techniques have been developed. Military and civilian units can perform air-sea rescue.
      Cave rescue is a highly specialized field of wilderness rescue in which injured, trapped or lost cave explorers are medically treated and extracted from various cave environments. Cave rescue borrows elements from firefighting, confined space rescue, rope rescue and mountaineering techniques but has also developed its own special techniques and skills for performing work in conditions that are almost always difficult and demanding.
      Mine rescue or mines rescue is the specialised job of rescuing miners and others who have become trapped or injured in underground mines because of mining accidents, roof falls or floods and disasters such as explosions caused by firedamp.
      Rope rescue is a subset of technical rescue that involves the use of Rope, be it steel or cable rope, or more commonly used nylon, polyester, or other type of rope. rope as it is called, is available in various types: Dynamic (stretches to absorb the shock of a falling lead climber or rescue professional) or Static (actually low stretch) which is most commonly used in rescue and industrial rope work. Anchoring includes using specialty anchors, as well as things as simple as a length of chain, cable, rope, or webbing wrapped around a pillar, tree, boulder, or such.
      Vehicle extrication is the process of removing a vehicle from around a person who has been involved in a motor vehicle accident, when conventional means of exit are impossible or inadvisable. A delicate approach is needed to minimize injury to the victim during the extrication. This operation is typically accomplished by using chocks and bracing for stabilization and hydraulic tools, including the Jaws of Life.

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    1. Different Aspects of Rescue Operation.
      The Acronym R.E.P.O.R.T can be used to describe the different aspects of a rescue operation.
      The acronym assists in breaking down the differing phases of the technical rescue process to assist with resources, timelines and direction.
      It stands for:
      R- response
      E- evaluation
      P- pre-entry
      O- operations
      R- removal
      T- termination

      Every technical rescue operation goes through these six phases. Your department may utilize a different acronym, but essentially you will go through each to accomplish the completion of your specialized rescue event.

      R — Response
      The response phase of the call is broken down into two separate areas — the pre-dispatch and the responding phase. The pre-dispatch phase is that time when district familiarization, pre-planning and resource identification is paramount. You must know what hazards exist in your area, what options you will have to address those operational impacts and where you will get resources from to meet those impacts. The second phase, responding, is the time from when your crew is dispatched to a call to arrival. The company officer must be trained to know when to ask for additional resources and ask for it early. In addition, they should be aware of any special information that is known — such as ingress details, next-in unit instructions and staging areas — and communicate those details to incoming units.

      E — Evaluation
      Once on scene, your primary task will be to gather information. The first-in unit should conduct an initial approach assessment to determine hazards, type of emergency and additional resource requirements. After the approach assessment, the first arriving Company Officer should transmit a size-up report, implement the appropriate portions of the Incident Command System, establish staging locations, request appropriate resources, gather available information and conduct a risk/benefit analysis.

      It is critical to know if the incident involves actually rescuing viable patients or if this is a body recovery. This knowledge determines the pace and urgency of the operation, and more importantly determines the acceptable level of risk in the risk/benefit analysis. Members should provide input into this ongoing analysis. Recovery operations undertaken by responders to recover the remains of victims or property should only be implemented when the risk to responders has been reduced to the lowest level possible.

      P — Pre-entry
      This step of the process of making the scene and surrounding area as safe as possible. The proper management of this phase of a technical consists of the following steps:
      Isolate — Initial company operations should include taking steps to secure the scene from unauthorized access or actions, as well as attempting to identify and secure a witness or responsible party. With each incident, isolation zones will need to be established to appropriately secure the scene — hot, warm and cold.
      Evacuate — Following the process of isolating the incident will often include evacuating people from the area of the rescue. These people will include Good Samaritan types, fellow workers, EMS, the press and onlookers.
      Lock Out/Tag Out — Lock out/Tag out is a system used to secure and isolate equipment from its source of energy while personnel are working on or near that equipment. While the rescue/extrication is taking place, a firefighter should be posted as a guard with a radio at the energy source.

      O — Operations
      This phase consists of the actual application of personnel and equipment to perform a rescue or recovery based on the risk/benefit assessment performed in the evaluation phase. Personnel who are certified at the operations level for the specific rescue being performed — rope, confined space, etc. — generally carry out this operation. While it is not essential that all personnel in an operational area be certified as operational, they do need to be directly supervised by an individual who is operations or technician certified. In addition, only those personnel who are integral in the operations and are actually working or delivering logistical needs should be inside the hot zone.

      R — Removal
      This phase of the technical rescue operation is the safe and effective removal of victims from the hot zone. This may require the collaboration of multiple disciplines to include rope rescue, EMS and extrication personnel. Remember also that specialized medical knowledge may be required to treat patients who may suffer from crush injuries and/or compartment syndrome secondary to structural or trench collapse.

      T — Termination
      The termination of a specialized rescue event is that time when rescue or recovery of a victim has occurred. The command team should take a short break to allow for members to rehab. It should also take this time to perform another risk/benefit analysis. Is the equipment in the hot zone worth the dangers required to remove them? This is especially critical when comparing the utilization of trench or structural collapse equipment. It may be better to detail the equipment left in the hot zone and bill the owners or contractor for their costs, rather than risk the loss of personnel. If the decision is made to remove equipment from a hot zone, remember to take your time! A large number of injuries and fatalities occur when in the termination phase of an event.

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    1. Air-sea rescue (ASR or A/SR, also known as sea-
      air rescue [1] ) is the coordinated search and
      rescue (SAR) of the survivors of emergency water
      landings as well as people who have survived the
      loss of their seagoing vessel. ASR can involve a
      wide variety of resources including seaplanes ,
      helicopters, submarines , rescue boats and ships.
      Specialized equipment and techniques have been
      developed. Military and civilian units can perform
      air-sea rescue.

      Like

        1. Rescue operations require a high degree of training and are performed by rescue squads, either independent or part of larger organizations such as fire, police, military, first aid, or ambulance service.

          Like

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