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  1. Give 5 reasons why general Ibrahim Badamasi Babaginda annuled the june 12 1993 presidential election

    1. 1.He thought that the situation was not ‘ripe’ to hand over at the time.
      2.The issue of security of the nation was a threat and we would have considered ourselves to have failed, if six months after handover, there was another coup.
      3.He said security threats to the advent of democracy at the time culminated in fresh plans to conduct another election within another six months after June 12 annulment.
      4.He was determined to conduct another election which culminated in the constitution of an Interim National Government (ING).
      5.He believe it was a step taken to save Nigeria judiciary from being ridiculed and politicized locally and internationally.”

    1. Peace is more than just the absence of war and violence
      Peace is not the absence of conflict – but the ability to manage conflict constructively, as an important opportunity for change and increased understanding
      Peace is a commitment to understanding, celebrating and learning from difference
      Peace is a commitment not to harm, but also to nurture, all individuals.
      Peace, however, is also seen as concord, or harmony and tranquility. It is viewed as peace of mind or serenity, especially in the East. It is defined as a state of law or civil government, a state of justice or goodness, a balance or equilibrium of Powers.

    1. The various ranks of the Nigerian Police force are:
      1.Inspector-General of Police (IGP)
      2.Deputy Inspector-General of Police (DIG)
      3.Assistant Inspector-General of Police (AIG)
      4.Commissioner of Police (CP)
      (In-charge of contingents in a state)
      5.Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP)
      6.Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP)
      7.Chief Superintendent of Police (CSP)
      8.Superintendent of Police (SP)
      9.Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP)
      10.Asst. Superintendent of Police (ASP)
      11.Inspector of Police (IP)
      12.Sergeant Major (SM)
      13.Sergeant
      14.Corporal
      15.Constable

  2. Write on the history of the1999 constitution of nigeria
    State the features of the 1999 constitution

    1. The history of the 1999 constitution of nigeria.

      The political history of Nigeria indicates that Nigeria has been ruled by the military for about 30 years in the 46 years of post independence Nigeria. As a result, apart from the 1960 and 1963 constitutions, all other constitutions are products of military rule (1979, 1989 and 1999). The 1999 constitution was promulgated into law as a decree by the Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar regime. The constitution was approved by the Armed Forces Ruling Council following a report submitted by the Justice Niki Tobi Constitution Debate Coordinating Committee. The committee had only two months to consult Nigerians before presenting a draft to the military for approval. This is why the 1999 Constitution has been criticised by all sectors and shades of opinion in Nigeria as a military imposition. But beyond the process of making the 1999 Constitution which is essentially flawed, the content of the constitution leaves much to be desired and is not suited for deepening of democracy. It does not protect the rights of women adequately. There are no adequate provisions for independence of the electoral and other commissions. It is more unitary that a federal constitution. In response to all these, the executive arm of government, the legislature, civil society, intergovernmental organisations, international organisations and donor agencies have prioritized the reform of the 1999 constitution. There is some level of agreement in areas that need reform in the constitution although there are some contentious issues in the areas of religion, state police, affirmative action etc. However, one issue that has changed the pattern of the reform process is the issue of tenure regarding the agitation by some people for extension of the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo beyond the two terms that the constitution allows.

      Section 135 of the 1999 constitution clearly provides tenure of four years for any person elected under the constitution as president and section 137 disqualifies any person who “has been elected to such office at any two previous elections.” There are similar provisions for the office of the Governor in sections 180 and 182 of the 1999 constitutions. The supreme court of Nigeria has settled the matter of two previous elections clearly stating that it has to be two elections under the 1999 constitution. The 1999 elections and 2003 elections were held under the 1999 constitution and anyone elected as President and Governor in 1999 and 2003 are clearly disqualified by the 1999 constitution from contesting the 2007 elections. Therefore, President Obasanjo and Governors elected in 1999 and re-elected in 2003 are disqualified from contesting the 2007 elections.

      B. The features of the 1999 constitution

      Presidential form of government: The president of any country has the veto power (the power to reject any decision made by the Law-making body). He is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces in the country. In Nigeria, the president appoints the ministers that work with him. Every minister is a member of the cabinet. Note that the president can exercise his power directly or through the ministers, vice president or through other officers.
      Separation of powers: The three arms of government provided by the Nigerian government are: the executive, legislative and the judicial arms of government. These three arms of government are equal and independent on each other. Separation of powers is division of powers and functions of the government among the three independent and separate arms of government.
      Federalism: Nigeria is Federal Republic under the Constitution. It is made up of Federal Capital Territory which is Abuja, 36 states and 774 Local Government Areas. It also has six area municipal councils in the Federal Capital Territory.
      The rule of Law: This is the equality of all before the Law. Laws are reasonably justifiable in a democratic society. Rule of Law implies that a country is governed by civil Law or regular Law. That means Laws which are justifiable in a democratic society. It is rule of right and not rule of might.
      Supremacy of the constitution: This implies that the Constitution is supreme above any other rule or Law. If other Laws are inconsistent with the provision of the Constitution, the Constitutional Law shall prevail and the other Laws void.

    1. Economic impact of air transportation

      Air transport is one of the world’s most important industries. Its development and its technical and service achievements make it one of the greatest contributors to the advancement of modern society.
      Aviation provides the only worldwide transportation network, which makes it essential for global business and tourism. It plays a vital role in facilitating economic growth, particularly in developing countries.
      Air transport generates a total of 13.5 million jobs (direct, indirect and induced). Of these, 5 million are direct jobs.
      The air transport industry has a substantial economic impact, both through its own activities and as an enabler of other industries. Its contribution includes direct, indirect and induced impacts, which are related to the total revenues of the air transport industry. The catalytic impacts of the industry are “spin-off” effects on other industries.

      Direct impacts:
      These cover employment and activity within the air transport industry including airline and airport operations, aircraft maintenance, air traffic control and regulation, and activities directly serving air passengers, such as check-in, baggage-handling, on-site retail and catering facilities. Not all of these activities necessarily take place at an airport, with some taking place at head office. Direct impacts also include the activities of the aerospace manufacturers selling aircraft and components to airlines and related businesses. Of the 5 million direct jobs generated by the air transport industry worldwide, 4.3 million people are employed by the airlines and airports (aviation sector) globally, contributing around US$ 275 billion of GDP to the global economy. This is as large a world industry as the pharmaceuticals sector. The breakdown of the 5 million direct jobs is as follows:
      • The civil aerospace sector (manufacture of aircraft systems, frames and engines, etc.) employed 730,000 (14% of total direct jobs) people in 2004.
      • An estimated 2.1 million people (or 41%) work for airlines or handling agents (e.g. as flight crew, check-in staff, maintenance crew, etc.).
      • Around 330,000 people (7%) work directly for airport operators (e.g. in airport management, maintenance, security, etc.).
      • A further 1.9 million (38%) work on-site at airports in retail outlets, restaurants, hotels, etc.

      Indirect impacts:
      These include employment and activities of suppliers to the air transport industry, for example, jobs linked to aviation fuel suppliers; construction companies that build additional facilities; the manufacture of goods sold in airport retail outlets, and a wide variety of activities in the business services sector (call centres, IT, accountancy, etc.). 5.8 million indirect jobs are supported through purchases of goods and services by companies in the air transport industry. Examples include jobs in the energy sector generated through the purchase of aircraft fuel; employment in the IT sector providing computer systems for the air transport industry; or the workers required to manufacture retail goods. The contribution of these indirect jobs to global GDP is US$ 375 billion.

      Induced impacts:
      These include spending by those directly or indirectly employed in the air transport sector that supports jobs in industries such as retail outlets, companies producing consumer goods and a range of service industries (e.g. banks, restaurants, etc.). 2.7 million induced jobs are supported through employees in the air transport industry (whether direct or indirect) using their income to purchase goods and services for their own consumption. This includes jobs in retail and a range of service industries. The induced contribution to global GDP is US$ 175 billion (2004 estimation).

  3. (1) List the genres of literature
    (2) Explain the three genres of literature
    (3) Give three examples each of the three genres of literature

    1. 1.Prose, Poetry and Drama

      2a.PROSE: Consists of those written within the common flow of conversation in sentence and paragraphs. Prose is a form of language which applies ordinary grammatical structure and natural flow of speech rather than rhythmic structure (as in traditional poetry).
      2b. Poetry: Comes from the Greek poiesis — with a broad meaning of a “making”, seen also in such terms as “hemopoiesis”; more narrowly, the making of poetry. It is refers to those expressions in verse, with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has a more melodious tone.
      2c. DRAMA: Drama is the theatrical dialogue performed on stage, it consists of 5 acts.Any text meant to be performed rather than read can be considered drama (unless it’s a poem meant to be performed, of course). In layman’s terms, dramas are usually called plays.

      Examples of Prose are: Novel, Short Story, Biography.
      Examples of Poetry are: Epic Poems, Folksongs, Psalm(Dalit)
      Examples of Drama Are: Comedy, melodrama, Tragedy

  4. (1) Identify causes of international conflicts and the organisations helping to resolve world conflicts.

    1. International conflict” referred to conflicts between different nation-states and conflicts between people and organizations in different nation-states.
      The causes of international conflicts are: Conflict over territory, conflict over scarce resources and conflict over ideological differences.
      1.Conflict over territory: Conflict over territory is an important cause of conflict between countries.When two or more countries stake claim over a tract of land, it causes conflict between these nations particularly if the land means a lot to the countries. An example of this is the Sino-Indian War of 1962. Both China and India were locked in a border dispute following Indias independence.China had built a road in Aksai Chin plateau, one of the contested tracts of land which led to rising tensions between China and India which finally culminated in a brief war. Thus, conflict between countries can arise due to conflict over territory.

      2.Conflict over scarce resources: Conflict over scarce resources is an important cause of conflict between countries. When countries have scarce resources they might use force to gain more. This causes conflict. An example of this is the Iceland Cod Wars. Iceland increased its fishing zone from 50to 200 nautical miles from shore in 1975 in response to overfishing in the area by British trawlers.However, Britain refused to recognize the new boundary and cut ties with Iceland in February 1976.The two countries eventually reached an agreement on June 1976 but there were many clashes between the Icelandic Coast Guard and the British Royal Navy during that period. Thus conflict between countries can arise due to conflict over scarce resources.

      3.Conflict over ideological differences: Conflict over ideological differences is an important cause of conflict between countries. Differing values and beliefs among countries can cause conflicts.Countries can come into conflict if they think their ideological beliefs are being threatened. An example of this is the Korean War fought between the communist North Korea and the democratic South Korea and their respective allies. The fighting brought destruction to many people in Korea.In August 1953, a ceasefire was negotiated by the two parties and a demilitarized zone between North Korea and South Korea was created. Thus conflict between countries can arise due to conflict over ideological differences.

      Organisations Helping to resolve conflicts around the world are:
      United Nations(UN), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), The Organisation of African Unity (OAU), Global Peacebuilders, Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC), International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA).

    1. A. Describe Smelting

      Smelting is the process of extracting a metal (like tin or copper) from its ore. Most ores are a chemical compound of metal with other elements, like or oxygen sulphur. Smelting uses heat and a reducing agent, like coal, to remove these other elements from the metal.
      Smelting involves more than just melting the metal out of its ore. Most ores are a chemical compound of the metal with other elements, such as oxygen (as an oxide), sulfur (as a sulfide) or carbon and oxygen together (as a carbonate). To produce the metal, these compounds have to undergo a chemical reaction. Smelting therefore consists of using suitable reducing substances that will combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal.
      It involves Roasting, Reduction and fluxing
      Roasting: In the case of carbonates and sulfides, a process called “roasting” drives out the unwanted carbon or sulfur, leaving an oxide, which can be directly reduced. Roasting is usually carried out in an oxidizing environment.
      Reduction: Reduction is the final, high-temperature step in smelting. It is here that the oxide becomes the elemental metal. A reducing environment (often provided by carbon monoxide, made by incomplete combustion, produced in an air-starved furnace) pulls the final oxygen atoms from the raw metal.
      Fluxes are used for catalyzing the desired reactions and chemically binding to unwanted impurities or reaction products.

      B. Different Kinds of Smelting

      Reduction smelting: This involves carbon reducing the ore by flux to give molten metal and slag. It is carried out in blast furnace or electric furnace.

      Matte smelting: Involves reducing agent, which produced matte and slag. It is carried out in reverbetory furnace or flash smelter. Flash smelter is a new technology which involves heating ore with other chemicals to high temperatures. Rather than using air, flash smelting is done in almost pure oxygen, as a result, the chemical reactions in the smelter occur more virgorously.

  5. (1) What is foreat and forestry
    (2) List and explain the types of forest
    (3) Explain the types of natural forest

    1. A. What is Forests and Forestry.

      Forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function.Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed across the globe. Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earth’s biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth’s plant biomass.

      Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands. It can be seen as the study of this complex interaction, the management of the various components of the forest, the preservation of its’ natural balance (of forests and the life forms they support) as well as the care of it to ensure its’ wellbeing.
      Good forestry programs also make it possible for humans to get some economic value from it, without hurting the forests in any way. This way of using the forest is known as Sustainable Forestry.

      B. Types of Forests

      Tropical rainforests.
      Hugely dense, lush forest with canopies preventing sunlight from getting to the floor of the forest.
      All year high temperatures and abundant rainfall.
      Located near the equator.
      A vital storehouse of biodiversity, sustaining millions of different animals, birds, algae and fish species.

      Sub-tropical forests.
      Located at the south and north of the tropical forests. Trees here are adapted to resist the summer drought.

      Mediterranean forests.
      Located at the south of the temperate regions around the coasts of the Mediterranean, California, Chile and Western Australia.
      The growing season is short and almost all trees are evergreen, but mixed with hardwood and softwood.

      Temperate forests.
      Located at Eastern North America, Northeastern Asia, and western and eastern Europe.
      Mix of deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees.
      Usually, the broad-leaved hardwood trees shed leaves annually. There are well-defined seasons with a distinct winter and sufficient rainfall.

      Coniferous forests.
      Located in the cold, windy regions around the poles.
      They come in both hardwoods and conifers. The hardwoods are deciduous. The conifers are evergreen and structurally adapted to withstand the long drought-like conditions of the long winters.

      C. Natural Forest

      A natural forest is a generally multilayered vegetation unit dominated by trees (largely evergreen or semi-deciduous), whose combined strata have overlapping crowns (i.e. the crown cover is 75% or more), and where grasses in the herbaceous stratum (if present) are generally rare. Fire does not normally play a major role in forest function or dynamics except at the fringes. Natural forest might be managed to some degree, or be unmanaged (untouched, non-intervention forest, strict forest reserve).

      After an adequate amount of time without intervention, such a forest might develop some of the basic structures of a virgin forest and be considered as “VIRGIN-LIKE NATURAL FOREST”. An over-riding problem is that every spot is directly or indirectly influenced by human activity; either directly by forestry operations, cutting, planting and drainage, or indirectly by manipulation of the grazing regime, air pollution, hindering the immigration and spreading of natural species and influencing the kind and amount of dominant species in the landscape. Dynamics in a non-intervention system will be affected by former activities for hundreds of years and no part of the forest can be viewed in isolation, but is an integral part of the surrounding forest and landscape.

  6. (1) Who is a consumer
    (2) List some rights of the consumer
    (3) List some challanges of the consumers
    (4) what are the responsibilities of food safety managers to the consumer

    1. A. Who is a consumer

      A consumer is a person or organization that uses economic services or commodities. In economic systems consumers are utilities expressed in the decision to trade or not. An individual who buys products or services for personal use and not for manufacture or resale. A consumer is someone who can make the decision whether or not to purchase an item at the store, and someone who can be influenced by marketing and advertisements

      B. Rights of the consumer

      (1) Right to safety: protection from hazardous goods.
      (2) Right to be informed: availability of information required for weighing alternatives, and protection from false and misleading claims in advertising and labeling practices.
      (3) Right to choose: availability of competing goods and services that offer alternatives in terms of price, quality, service.
      (4) Right to be heard: assurance that government will take full cognizance of the concerns of consumers, and will act with sympathy and dispatch through statutes and simple and expeditious administrative procedures.

      C. Challenges of the consumers

      Lack of Information
      Malpractices by Suppliers
      Irregular Supply
      Not Heard Properly
      Poor after-Sale-Service
      Problem of Delivery of Goods
      Health & Safety Hazards
      8.Poor Quality of Sales Personnel

      D. The responsibilities of food safety managers to the consumer

      To ensure that all consumers receive equal levels of protection;
      Ensures that all food producers, whether domestic or foreign, are equitably treated through application of the same levels of safety;
      Ensures that consumers are informed about the standards of protection that are being applied.

    1. A. Define data manipulation

      Data manipulation is the process of changing data in an effort to make it easier to read or more organized. For example, a log of data could be organized in alphabetical order, making individual entries easier to locate. Data manipulation is often used on web server logs to allow a website owner to view their most popular pages as well as their traffic sources. It is simply the standard operations of sorting, merging, input/output, and report generation.

      B. Qualities of a good computer professional

      Solve Problems and Troubleshoot: At the top of the list for most computer careers is not just the ability to solve problems but also a desire to solve problems. Whether it’s a software application, or a computer network, or an animated Web page, troubleshooting is the name of the game.

      2.Research: Related to problem solving is the ability to research solutions. Many resources exist, such as coworkers, discussion groups on the Internet, journals and magazines, and books. A good problem solver is willing to delve into all these resources to find the best solution.

      Multitask: It is a rare luxury for a computer professional to be able to work on only one project, or one problem, at a time. It is far more common to be required to work on several different things at once, often with similar deadlines.
      Be Detail-Oriented, Analytical, and Accurate: In an industry where a single misplaced semicolon can cause a computer program to crash, or an incorrectly wired network can allow hackers to compromise corporate communications, attention to detail is paramount.
      Be Adaptable: If there is one thing that never changes about computers, it is that they never stop changing. Software requirements change. Communication protocols change. Hardware changes. Instead of becoming frustrated with this state of flux, computer professionals must assume that every day something is going to be different and adapt to the new situation. Part of this adaptability is the willingness to learn new things.

  7. (1) Write on digestion,absorption and storage of food in human body.
    (2) Write on the meaning of ATOM

    1. A. Digestion,Absorption and Storage of food in human body.

      Digestion

      Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine into the bloodstream. Digestion is a form of catabolism that is often divided into two processes based on how food is broken down: mechanical and chemical digestion. Digestion is important for breaking down food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before the blood absorbs them and carries them to cells throughout the body. The body breaks down nutrients from food and drink into carbohydrates, protein, fats, and vitamins.
      Digestion works by moving food through the GI tract. Digestion begins in the mouth with chewing and ends in the small intestine. As food passes through the GI tract, it mixes with digestive juices, causing large molecules of food to break down into smaller molecules. The body then absorbs these smaller molecules through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream, which delivers them to the rest of the body. Waste products of digestion pass through the large intestine and out of the body as a solid matter called stool.

      Absorption

      Digestion and absorption begins in your mouth and ends when waste exits your colon. Food is fuel for your body and provides nutrients, which are broken down and absorbed during digestion. Components in foods, including carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals, each have their own function in your system and are metabolized in different ways.
      Digested food molecules are absorbed in the small intestine. This means that they pass through the wall of the small intestine and into our bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the digested food molecules are carried around the body to where they are needed.
      During the process of absorption, nutrients that come from the food (including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals) pass through channels in the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream. The blood works to distribute these nutrients to the rest of the body.

      Storage of Food

      Whenever we eat, our body is going to break this food down using powerful enzymes, and the nutrients from this source will either be stored in your body as energy, or used in another fashion. For the energy itself, it is stored in the human body in three ways: as protein (muscles), as sugar (in the blood and muscles) and as fat.
      The body stores energy immediately after you ingest calories and the first place this energy is found is in your blood. Secondly, it is located in the muscles as glycogen. And thirdly, it is being stored as fat.
      The human body uses food as its fuel. Active adult females consume 2400 calories per day, while inactive females will consume approximately 1800 calories per day. … In the absence of food, the body uses its reserve fuel (glycogen). Glycogen is stored as fat in the body.
      Energy is actually stored in your liver and muscle cells and readily available as glycogen. We know this as carbohydrate energy. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells. Another source of fuel for the body is protein, but is rarely a significant source of fuel.

      B. The meaning of ATOM
      Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements. Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
      Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the center of the atom, which is called the nucleus. Electrons are extremely lightweight and exist in a cloud orbiting the nucleus. The electron cloud has a radius 10,000 times greater than the nucleus.
      Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass. However, one proton weighs more than 1,800 electrons. Atoms always have an equal number of protons and electrons, and the number of protons and neutrons is usually the same as well. Adding a proton to an atom makes a new element, while adding a neutron makes an isotope, or heavier version, of that atom.

  8. (1) Define violence in sports
    (2) State the causes of violence in sports
    (3) State the ways of reducing violence in sports

    1. Definition of Violence in Sports

      Violence in Sports can be defined as behavior which causes harm, occurs outside of the rules of the sport, and is unrelated to the competitive objectives of the sport. Violence is an outcome of reactive aggression. It refers to physical acts committed in contact sports such as American football, ice hockey, rugby football, lacrosse, association football, boxing, mixed martial arts, wrestling, and water polo beyond the normal levels of contact expected while playing the sport.

      B. Causes of Violence in sports

      Overcrowding if there are lots of people supporters may become agitated and become angry
      If there is a lot of tension and the emotion gets too much
      If a bit of contact is in the nature of the game but can be taken too far.
      Angry or frustrated at a decision or the result of a match
      Hooligans at matches believe that it’s their job to cause chaos and violence

      C. Ways of Reducing Violence in Sports

      Cut off the substance fuelling the hooligans e.g cocaine, control the supply of alcohol
      Take passports from offenders so they can’t travel to games.
      Improve spectator facilities, separation of fans.
      Have more qualified officials, with more authority so players cannot question the decisions as easily.
      Educate people on fair play, and the harm that the violence can cause.

    1. An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.[1] Typically, it is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Aircraft carriers are expensive to build and are critical assets. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighter planes, strike aircraft, helicopters, and other types of aircraft.
      Water transport is movement by means of a watercraft—such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat—over a body of water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. The need for buoyancy is common to watercraft, making the hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance and appearance.

      Air carrier and water carrier can be compare under the following headings:

      COST: Aircraft bill you by what is called a chargeable weight. Chargeable weight is calculated from a combination of the weight and size of a shipment. While water carrier charge per container rates for shipping in standard containers (20’ and 40’ being the most common sizes). While weight can factor into the price from sea carriers, their charge tends to be based more on the size of a shipment.

      SPEED: When it comes to speed, there is no question that air carrier is usually much faster. Many sea shipments can take around a month to arrive while an air shipment takes a day or two. For most business shipping, faster is better. When it comes to the individual moving a household, it is often good to have the extra time to prepare for the arrival of household goods in a new country. It should be noted that technology keeps moving forward in the international shipping world.
      Nevertheless, Ships are getting faster. Canals have created shorter shipping routes. There are many ocean freight shipments crossing the oceans and being delivered in as few as 8 days.

      RELIABILITY: Aircarrier shipping has a much, much shorter history than water carrier shipping, yet air freight tends to win the battle of reliability. Flights get delayed by weather and other factors, but air carriers tend to be very on top of their schedules. Water carriers are notorious for being bad about this. It is not uncommon for ships to be off schedule.
      With air carrier, there are usually daily flights back and forth between major cities around the world. Because of this, missing a flight doesn’t cause much of a delay for a cargo shipment. Ocean lines tend to have weekly schedules. Missing the cut off at a seaport means a longer delay.

      ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT: CO2 emissions are much higher in air freight transport than water freight transport. This causes cargo shipping by air to have a much larger carbon fingerprint than cargo shipping by sea. However, considering oil spills and the water ecosystems affected by ocean freight, gives pause.

    1. Air travel can be separated into two general classifications: national/domestic and international flights. Flights from one point to another within the same country are called domestic flights. Flights from a point in one country to a point within a different country are known as international flights. Travelers can use domestic or international fights in either private or public travel.
      During flight, the aircraft cabin pressure is usually maintained at the equivalent of 6,000–8,000 ft (1,829–2,438 m) above sea level. Most healthy travelers will not notice any effects. However, for travelers with cardiopulmonary diseases (especially those who normally require supplemental oxygen), cerebrovascular disease, anemia, or sickle cell disease, conditions in an aircraft can exacerbate underlying medical conditions. Aircraft cabin air is typically dry, usually 10%–20% humidity, which can cause dryness of the mucous membranes of the eyes and airways.
      Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as helicopters, hot air balloons, blimps, gliders, hang gliding, parachuting, airplanes, jets, or anything else that can sustain flight.
      What are the main advantages of air transport?
      1. High Speed:
      It is a high speed means of transport. Passengers and goods can be transported speedily from one place to the other.
      2. Transport of Costly and Light Goods:
      It is convenient to send costly, light and perishable goods through air transport.
      3. Minimum Cost:
      Unlike railways and road transport there is no need to spend any money on the construction of any track or road. One has only to construct air-ports.
      4. Free from Geographical Constraints:
      Mountains oceans and rivers create no obstruction to air transports.
      5. Useful for Agriculture:
      Aeroplanes are used to make aerial spray of pesticides and insecticides.
      6. Strategic Importance:
      It has great strategic significance. Soldier, arms and ammunition can be airlifted to the troubled spots.

      Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances. Methods of transportation fall into three categories: Aqueducts, which include pipelines, canals, and tunnels, container shipment, which includes transport by tank truck, tank car, and tank ship, and towing, where a tugboat is used to pull an iceberg or a large water bag along behind it.
      Due to its weight, the transportation of water is very energy intensive. Unless it has the assistance of gravity, a canal or long-distance pipeline will need pumping stations at regular intervals.
      Water transport is the cheapest and the oldest mode of transport. It operates on a natural track and hence does not require huge capital investment in the construction and maintenance of its track except in case of canals. The cost of operation of water transport is also very less. It has the largest carrying capacity and is most suitable for carrying bulky goods over long distances. It has played a very significant role in bringing different parts of the world closer and is indispensable to foreign trade.
      Larger Capacity: It can carry much larger quantities of heavy and bulky goods such as coal, and, timber etc.
      Flexible Service: It provides much more flexible service than railways and can be adjusted to individual requirements.
      Safety: The risks of accidents and breakdowns, in this form of transport, are minimum as compared to any other form of transport.
      Flexible Service: It provides much more flexible service than railways and can be adjusted to individual requirements.
      Low Cost: Rivers are a natural highway which does not require any cost of construction and maintenance. Even the cost of construction and maintenance of canals is much less or they are used, not only for transport purposes but also for irrigation, etc. Moreover, the cost of operation of the inland water transport is very low. Thus, it is the cheapest mode of transport for carrying goods from one place to another.
      Less Maintenance Cost: Maintenance cost in rail and road transport is quite high but maintenance cost of water transport is quite less.
      Useful During Natural Calamities: During natural calamities like flood and rains, when rail and road transport is disrupted, relief operations can be operated through water transport.

  9. Discuss the development of road networks in the United States of America and the social and economic impact it has on the country and the world

    1. The development of road networks in the United States of America

      A large and extensive road system was already in place in the United States when cars became a major mode of transportation in the early twentieth century. The pattern of the system mirrored land uses and transportation corridors of the nineteenth century. Roads were narrow, primarily composed of dirt and gravel, and for the most part, followed existing topography. Before 1900, only 4% of the roads were paved, leading to poor and unreliable traveling conditions. Yet this system formed the template for the current system. Indeed, the road system has less than doubled in length since 1900, but the capacity has multiplied to accommodate an ever-increasing demand (Forman et al. 2003).
      The development of the road system occurred in distinct eras, paced in part by technological transportation developments and resource availability. Each era marked a distinct change in a suite of variables (public values, policy, and fiscal resources) that influence road development.
      The historical context for roads is an important consideration because history affects the current ecological effects of roads. For example, the designers of a modern interstate highway would be more likely to be sensitive to the hydrological and ecological effects of the project than the designers of a two-lane rural road built with county funds or 50 years ago without federal review. In addition, ecological impacts, environmental mitigation, and simple scale of the road surface area vary widely by road type. For example, depending on the scale of concern, an eight-lane interstate highway connecting major cities would have much greater fragmenting effects than a two-lane rural road.

      Social and Economic impact on the country and the world

      A region’s industrial and employment base is closely tied to the quality of the transportation system. Good, dependable transportation infrastructure allows businesses to receive inputs to production facilities and to transport finished goods to market in an efficient manner. An efficient transportation system allows companies to lower transportation costs, which lowers production costs and enhances productivity and profits.
      The quality of road network enable firms currently operating on the system to ship goods more cheaply (as trucks can reach destinations without major delays) and to improve service (as delivery schedules become more reliable). Subsequently, more timely and reliable deliveries allow firms located on or near road networks to minimize their stationary inventories, thereby saving inventory and storage costs and enhancing productivity. Collectively, this translates into higher productivity for the nation as a whole.
      Road Network accentuates the focus on key arterial highways serving interstate and international commerce. The competitiveness of the United States in the global marketplace relies upon expectations for improved intermodal linkages between the highway system and other transportation modes. Economic impacts arising from these linkages will yield significant effects on the overall U.S. economy, the standard of living of U.S. citizens, and the competitiveness of U.S. industry.
      In addition, a good road network may result in net positive impacts to employment levels within the nation, as public funds are diverted from less labor-intensive investment options to those supporting greater overall employment, such as highway construction and maintenance.

    1. Production in the manufacturing sector is frequently characterised by a relatively rigid and monotonous pace dictated by the conveyor belt (Berg, 1994) and is often physically demanding. The same applies to metal manufacturing where conveyor belts in the production sector are very common. However, jobs in the service sector are often characterised by the absence of physically demanding production methods. They are frequently psychologically demanding, however, because the individual output is easy 6 to measure, such as in the banking and insurance industry. Jobs in the service sector often imply a high degree of social interaction and communication skills. A priori, we expect a decline in the relative productivity of older workers in the production sectors, while we expect the productivity for the service sector to decline at a slower pace.
      The higher importance of continuing training in addition might reduce the relative productivity of older employees in the manufacturing sector – older employees take part in training less often. An important reason for the decline in training participation over the life cycle might be that personnel managers perceive older employees to be less able and willing to learn (Boockmann and Zwick, 2004). When older employees take part in training, their participation seems to be less effective than for younger employees (Göbel and Zwick, 2010). Therefore, we would expect a decline in relative productivity of older employees in sectors that need continuous training efforts.
      Findings indicate that as people grow older, intrinsic work satisfaction becomes more important than extrinsic rewards such as money and promotion. Older workers can perform as well as their younger counterparts, but external and psychological conditions associated with aging, such as negative cultural expectations, lower self-esteem, high anxiety, and cautiousness, sometimes affect job performance and motivation.
      Age more closely related to intrinsic job satisfaction (e.g., the work itself) rather than extrinsic satisfaction (e.g., pay, promotions.)
      Older workers tend to associate job security with other extrinsic rewards such as benefits, supervision, and working conditions. However, the results tend to confirm Herzberg’s conclusion that the absence of hygiene factors can create dissatisfaction among workers. Both age groups tend to report job dissatisfaction when they do not have access to hygiene (or extrinsic) factors. Moreover, both age groups reported a significant level of job dissatisfaction when they did not access extrinsic rewards they felt were important.
      Older workers are generally more satisfied with their job Since establishments differ with respect to the skills, experience and knowledge of their employ.

    1. Bureaucracy and excessive regulation, commonly known as red tape, has a strong influence in a company or multinational corporation. Red tape includes all sorts of rules, paperwork, permits, taxes, procedures or requirements which can be crucial when setting up a company or doing business in a new market. Even though there may be great business opportunities, many organisations shy away from the so called ‘business-unfriendly’ countries.
      Many businesses find that, in a competitive economy, they are unable to drive forward social and environmental innovation with ease. Investments that require a longer-term turnaround are not often welcome by shareholders, and so are usually scrapped in favour of short-term gain. At the same time, unpredictable threats by NGOs or the media, when a business causes harm, can do damage to both the reputation of a company and ultimately, to the bottom line. Regulation, by contrast, can help to stabilise the operating environment by clarifying expectations, whilst simultaneously stimulating new business opportunities at the same time. For developing countries, the need for such regulation to be put in place at both the domestic and trans-national levels is even more critical to enable them to build stable economies while protecting the most vulnerable members of their societies. This requirement has even been recognised by the UK government’s Department for International Development, which noted that: “Effective governments are needed to build the legal, institutional and regulatory framework without which market reforms can go badly wrong at great cost – particularly to the poor…. effective regulation remains essential – for instance, to promote financial sector stability, to protect consumers, to safeguard the environment, and to promote and protect human rights, including core labour standards.”
      A society’s need to create rules and processes, which can often result in heavy bureaucracy, is culturally driven. When people in a culture find risk or uncertainty uncomfortable, they usually define rules or policies to ensure that there is no ambiguity. Interculturalist Geert Hofstede analysed this component of culture and called it Uncertainty Avoidance. Cultures who feel a need to control things to avoid any risk or vagueness are often classified as having a low tolerance to uncertainty avoidance.
      Countries who tend to be on this end of the scale, and who therefore are often perceived to have a lot of red tape, include Russia, Argentina Brazil, Poland and Greece. People in these countries do not like to be rushed into making decisions and think that detailed and rigid processes makes the world a better and more secure place. Bureaucracy may impede companies to take appropriate actions to achieve organisational goals or adapt on the changing market, but it is deeply rooted in some cultures as a measure to guarantee equality. How things are run in other countries may cause frustration and failure, promote stereotypes and will undoubtedly make building trust and enhancing interpersonal relationships more difficult.
      While it is easy to perceive red tape as a negative, it’s important to understand that it is a culturally driven behaviour resulting from a value of needing security and low risk. If interpreted differently and harnessed effectively, this could in turn bring organisations more benefits than you realise in the long run. Doing business in one of these countries might be challenging at first, but it can also be a great opportunity once you know how culture affects every procedure, activity or objective.
      Although things may take longer and may be more complicated, the end result of successfully dealing with the red tape you encounter could give you an edge on all of those companies who avoided these challenges.

    1. Upgrade process involves the upgrading of your entire Flex System V7000 Storage Node environment.

      The IBM Flex System V7000 Storage Node provides virtualized storage within the IBM PureFlex System environment, and provides shared storage capacity to compute nodes by virtualizing internal disk drives and external fibre channel storage system capacity.
      Upgrades typically involve major changes to the software. That is why they have new version numbers; a substantial number of files change for an upgrade.
      The publisher of the software supplies a Windows Installer package for the new version, and that package should define which existing versions of the software the new package can upgrade. It should also contain instructions on how to perform the upgrade (which existing files can remain in place, which existing files should be deleted, and which new files need to be installed).

      1.Before you upgrade, become familiar with the prerequisites and tasks involved. Decide whether you want to upgrade automatically or upgrade manually. During an automatic upgrade procedure, the clustered system upgrades each of the nodes systematically. The automatic method is the preferred procedure for upgrading software on nodes. However, you can also upgrade each node manually.
      2. Ensure that CIM object manager (CIMOM) clients are working correctly. When necessary, upgrade these clients so that they can support the new version of Flex System V7000 Storage Node code.
      3. Ensure that multipathing drivers in the environment are fully redundant.
      4. Upgrade your Flex System V7000 Storage Node.
      5. Upgrade other devices in the Flex System V7000 Storage Node environment. Examples might include upgrading hosts and switches to the correct levels.

      Note: The amount of time can vary depending on the amount of preparation work required and the size of the environment. Generally allow approximately one hour per node for an upgrade. A paced upgrade will most likely be longer.

  10. What are the constraints, assumptions, risks and dependencies of upgrading the software management system for a food manufacturing company?

    1. Once identified, these assumptions and constraints shape the upgrading of management system in specific, but diverging ways – assumptions bring possibilities, whereas constraints bring limits

      The Constraint include;
      Results: The products and effect of your project. For example, the new product(Food Product) must cost no more than $300 per item to manufacture.
      Time frames: When you must produce certain results. For example, the upgrade must be done by June 30. You don’t know whether it’s possible to finish by June 30; you just know that it ought to be ready right in time.
      Resources: The type, amount, and availability of resources to perform a successful upgrading to the the company running hitch free. Resources can include people, funds, equipment, raw materials, facilities, information, and so on.
      Activity performance: The strategies for performing different tasks. For example, you’re told that you must use your organization’s printing department to reproduce the new users’ manuals for the system you’re developing. You don’t know what the manual will look like, how many pages it’ll be, the number of copies you’ll need, or when you’ll need them. Therefore, you can’t know whether your organization’s printing department is up to the task. But at this point, you do know that someone expects you to have the printing department do the work.
      Other constraints include;
      Budget
      Man hours
      Availability of existing software

          The assumptions are as follows
      

      Control Assumptions: Control assumptions capture expected control flow. For example, developers often assume the order in which various methods, often within a single class or subprogram, are invoked.
      Environment Assumptions :Recording environment assumptions captures what is expected of the environment in which the application will operate. For example, applications are often developed assuming a particular database product and version for data storage
      Data Assumptions: Data assumptions capture what is expected of input or output data. These assumptions are different from pre-conditions or post-conditions in that they do not correspond to specifications to which a developer must code, but rather conditions created by the developer under which a program will function correctly to help in actualizing the goal of the company.
      Usage Assumptions: Usage assumptions capture how an application is expected to be used in the company.
      Convention Assumptions: Convention assumptions capture the standards or conventions that the developer is following. The convention is normally based on the type of software being used.

            The Risk Are as follows
      

      Upgrading a software management system for a food manufacturing company can pose a variety of threats to your core business operations. Once again, the prevalence of custom coding means these types of systems are not architected to handle change. Therefore, the difficulty involved in code modifications represents a serious risk for lost data and disrupted business due to system debugging, and other testing may lead to unexpected downtime.
      In addition, upgrades made to one part of the system can have unintended effects on related functions. The likelihood of this occurring increases with the volume of custom code. Moreover, the traditional upgrade process puts business operations at risk if the upgrade cannot properly support them. Equally risky is the prospect of maintaining a software management system infrastructure with limited to no support from the suppliers of related equipment and software.
      Ultimately, the potential risk to customer relationships must be considered in the upgrade decision. Customers today demand short order cycles and high degrees of accuracy throughout the fulfillment process. Shipping mistakes and other customer service errors can result from glitches in the upgrade process can cost you dearly in lost customers and revenue. Ironically, the upgrade process for a code-based system can threaten the stability of the operations and customer service it is intended to improve.

      The project dependencies are as follows;

      An application depends on many libraries, requiring lengthy downloads, large amounts of disk space, and not being very portable (all libraries must be ported for the application to be ported). It can also be difficult to locate all the dependencies,
      Circular dependencies: If application A depends upon and can’t run without a specific version of application B, but application B, in turn, depends upon and can’t run without a specific version of application A. Upgrading any application will break another.
      Conflicting dependencies: If app1 depends on libfoo 1.2, and app2 depends on libfoo 1.3, and different versions of libfoo cannot be simultaneously installed, then app1 and app2 cannot simultaneously be used.
      Long chains of dependencies: Sometimes, however, during this long chain of dependencies, conflicts arise where two different versions of the same package are required

    1. Demonstration of Awareness is dedicated to raising people’s awareness issues that needs urgent attention. It costs almost nothing, yet really gets the point across in a dramatic way.

  11. Write short note on the 7types of graphic artist
    (1)Art director
    (2)Art illustrator
    (3)Layout man
    (4)Paste up man
    (5)Photographer
    (6)cartoonist
    (7)Industrial design

    1. Art Director: The art director is in charge of the overall visual appearance and how it communicates visually, stimulates moods, contrasts features, and psychologically appeals to a target audience. The art director makes decisions about visual elements used, what artistic style to use, and when to use motion.

      Art Illustrator: This is a person who takes concepts from art directors or editors and creates a visual via drawing, painting or what have you.Illustration is one of the most versatile art forms in today’s visual culture.

      Layout Man: Layout is The art or process of arranging printed or graphic matter on a page.
      A layout Man is one who plans the layout of material to be printed or reproduced

      Paste up Man: Paste up man uses the method of creating or laying out publication pages that predates the use of the now-standard computerized page design desktop publishing programs. Completed, or camera-ready, pages are known as mechanicals or mechanical art. In the offset lithography process, the mechanicals would be photographed with a stat camera to create a same-size film negative for each printing plate required.

      Photographer: A photographer is a professional that focuses on the art of taking photographs with a digital or film camera. Photographers use artificial and/or natural lighting to snap pictures of various people, places and things in a variety of settings.photographers are responsible for the digital or physical development of their pictures, and may also be responsible for small or heavy editing of their pictures.

      Cartoonists: A Cartoonist is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons. This work is often created for entertainment, political commentary, or advertising. Cartoonists may work in many formats, such as animation, booklets, comic strips, comic books, editorial cartoons, graphic novels, manuals, gag cartoons, graphic design, illustrations, storyboards, posters,shirts, books, advertisements, greeting cards, magazines, newspapers, and video game packaging.

      Industrial Design: Industrial design (ID) is the professional service of creating and developing concepts and specifications that optimize the function, value and appearance of products and systems for the mutual benefit of both user and manufacturer. All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or a large team

    1. National income is the total value a country’s final output of all new goods and services produced in one year. National Income is a key determinant of consumer demand. The relationship between National income and demand can be both direct and inverse.

      Aggregate payments to individuals represent the means of payment the economic system places at the disposal of ultimate consumers, constituting their main, but not sole, source of purchasing power: consumers may draw upon their accumulated assets or use credit to supplement their current income. Consumers’ outlay designates the sum spent by ultimate consumers during the year on finished commodities and services. It can be either smaller or larger than aggregate payments to individuals.

      The demand for goods also depends upon the incomes of the people. The greater the incomes of the people, the greater will be their demand for goods. In drawing the demand schedule or the demand curve for a good we take income of the people as given and constant. When as a result of the rise in the income of the people, the demand increases, the whole of the demand curve shifts upward and vice versa.
      The greater income means the greater purchasing power. Therefore, when incomes of the people increase, they can afford to buy more. It is because of this reason that increase in income has a positive effect on the demand for a good.
      An increase in National income enabling consumers to be able to afford more goods. Higher income could occur for a variety of reasons, such as higher wages and lower taxes. When an individual’s income goes up, their ability to purchase goods and services increases, and this causes demand to increase. When incomes fall there will be a decrease in the demand for most goods

      When the incomes of the people fall, they would demand less of a good and as a result the demand curve will shift downward. For instance, as a result of economic growth in India the incomes of the people have greatly increased owing to the large investment expenditure on the development schemes by the Government and the private sector.
      As a result of this increase in incomes, the demand for good grains and other consumer goods has greatly increased. Likewise, when because of drought in a year the agriculture production greatly falls, the incomes of the farmers decline. As a result of the decline in incomes of the farmers, they will demand less of the cotton cloth and other manufactured products.
      Normal goods
      In the case of normal goods, income and demand are directly related, meaning that an increase in income will cause demand to rise and a decrease in income causes demand to fall. For example, luxuries like cars and computers are normal goods for most people.
      Inferior goods
      In the case of inferior goods income and demand are inversely related, which means that an increase in income leads to a decrease in demand and a decrease in income leads to an increase in demand. For example, necessities like bread are often inferior goods.

  12. Compare and contrast the impact of periods of the great empires and the industrial revolution had on the development of the travel and transportation industry

    1. THE GREAT EMPIRE AND TRANSPORTATION

      Ancient Romans traveled by land and sea. From earliest times the Romans displayed remarkable skill at building and engineering. They constructed bridges across the river Tiber, aqueducts to supply Rome with water, and sewers to drain the forum and keep the city healthy.
      As they expanded their power across Italy, the Romans linked the capital with other communities they had conquered by a network known as the famous Roman roads so well designed that many still lie beneath the motorways of modern Italy.
      After the neglect of the provinces during the civil wars, Augustus was determined to improve the infrastructure to promote economic growth. During the first two centuries AD, war was relatively infrequent, and Augustus and his successors kept their troops busy with military construction. A great network of roads, bridges, and canals opened the interior of Gaul to Roman commerce and cultural influence.

      Rome’s military engineers were skilled surveyors who designed numerous vast projects in the provinces that the troops helped to build: fortified camps, frontier walls, roads, canals, bridges, arches, baths, and temples. These projects and other legionary expenditures helped the provincial economies by providing work for local merchants, craftspeople, farmers, and the usual range of camp followers.

      Expansion of the Roman Empire was both facilitated by and an impetus to the development of an efficient system of roads. They were usually built by a consul or other important magistrate, starting in the early Republic.
      The roads were important militarily, as they bound together the steadily growing Roman Empire. A good road would shed water during the rainy season and permit travel at a rapid pace during all kinds of weather.

      They were surfaced with stone paving blocks, had a drainage ditch on each side and were crowned to shed water. The major Roman roads were built upon a foundation of carefully laid rock which was constructed from a large ditch dug into the underlying earth. In this way, if the ground became waterlogged, a tight foundation layer helped prevent anyone traveling on the road from sinking out of sight in the mud.

      City streets were paved with large fitted stones lain upon a foundation of rock also.
      Roman civil engineering made it possible for the Romans to travel almost as efficiently by road as by ship, although the Romans usually preferred to travel by sea to towns on the coast, if they were given a choice. Roads were often frequented by bandits and one who traveled without a good company of slaves and armed retainers risked losing his or her life.
      The few inns at which a traveler could find lodging for the night were of dubious quality at best and were downright risky at times. Most innkeepers were crooks, the food was bad, and the inns were frequented by cutthroats and drunks. All kinds of lice and other insects infested the bedding, and the traveler might not even find a bed at all because they were all taken by other guests by the time he arrived at the inn.

      Occasions for road travel included army officers on business, government magistrates traveling between Rome and their posts, students journeying to Athens to complete their education at the universities there, and imperial postal couriers carrying messages and letters. Travel for enjoyment and long journeys by foot were almost unheard of in Roman society.

      The rich often traveled lying down in a litter carried on the shoulders of slaves or seated in a sedan chair, also carried by slaves. Military officers traveled on horseback and the Roman army had stations at which a courier or officer could exchange a tired mount for a fresh one. Intimate knowledge of this system of relay stations enabled the emperor Constantine as a young man to escape the court of Galerius to rejoin his father in Britain.
      The streets in Rome and other large cities were crowded and narrow. Freight was delivered by wagons at night, as wagons were banned from the city by day because of the congestion. Travel within the cities was often done on foot by rich and poor alike. The proper way for a wealthy woman of Senatorial rank to travel was by carpentum, a large four wheel covered coach. Additionally, she could travel by litter, just like the men.

      Means of transportation that permit uninterrupted movement on land, water, or in air, in any combination, or through all the markedly different conditions that exist within a medium, have never been contrived. Hence, the conduct of long-distance trade required the establishment of settlements wherever environmental variations along routes required the transfer of goods and travelers from one mode of transportation to another. A number of the major cities of the world originated as settlements at what were break-in bulk points for the transportation systems of the time.

      The early empires. The sociopolitical epoch of small city-states was followed by the period of large nation-states and empires which exploited their transportation resources—in conjunction with combined population, military, and diplomatic advantages—in order to establish integrated rule over vast areas containing many formerly independent units linked only by trade relations. These large political units owed their success and stability in large part to the development, maintenance, and operation of improved transport nets, which facilitated rapid movement of the considerable quantities of military, political, and economic goods and personnel so necessary to a large integrated nation. To a degree no longer the case, the transportation networks of the time were also the communication networks. The road systems of the Romans, the Incas, and the Mayas provide classic illustrations of these systems (Cooley 1894), although mastery of water transport was often equally critical. Within the borders of such nations space represented a cost of ordered integration, being paid for in the value of resources committed to transportation. In fact, the boundaries of these early empires were determined to a great extent by their relatively primitive means of transportation; seas, mountains, and rivers set natural limits to expansion.

      After the period of the early great empires and a period of decline or arrested growth in the West during the Middle Ages, came the period of newer territorially diffused empires of Western nations. In this modern era, initiated by trade revivals and characterized by more advanced levels of social organization and cultural accomplishment, transportation was, as the case of Great Britain so well exemplifies, a key to empire. At least in its inception, the course to empire was intertwined with knowledge of and capacity for marine transportation. While contiguous segments were linked by road, canal, and, later, rail nets, maintenance of effective central organization and control of dispersed colonies depended upon reliable and dependable navies and merchant marines. Toward the end of the period of imperialism, innovations in rail and road transportation had so enhanced the ability of imperialist nations both to organize the mother country and to exploit a few particularly desirable colonies that large empires were no longer as advantageous as they were in the nineteenth century (Wolfe 1963, pp. 70-91). Of course, the assertion by most former colonies of their independence left the imperialist nations little choice in this respect.

      Modern air transport technology, in a world in which major powers conduct their foreign affairs with subtle and covert techniques of influence and exploitation, has all but obviated recent geographic patterns of empire and spheres of control by affording rapid access to any point on the globe. Not only may such empires no longer be desirable or necessary, but aircraft, as yet, cannot sustain indefinitely the large-scale movements of goods and persons necessary for building and maintaining them. In contrast, modern transportation innovations have enabled expansion of the land boundaries of the larger, more powerful nations, often permitting them to surmount former environmental barriers. However, even today, major barriers like the Pamir Knot or the Andes, particularly when approached through equally difficult environments for land or water transport, act as restraints on expansion into contiguous areas.

      INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSPORTATION

      The term “Industrial Revolution” was coined by Auguste Blanqui, a French economist, in 1837 to denote the economic and social changes arising out of the transition from industries carried in the homes with simple instruments, to industries in factories with power-driven machinery in Britain, but it came into vogue when Arnold Toynbee, the great historian, used it in 1882.

      The Industrial Revolution brought a series of changes in the methods of manufacture, production and distribution and drastically affected the economic and social life of the people.

      Ship-building was an old and popular industry in England. England had a powerful navy which had defeated all her rivals like the Dutch and the French. She was the undisputed mistress of the seas. This enabled her to build up an enormous and lucrative trade. Her ships sailed to many parts of the world and brought raw material, tobacco, tea, sugar, spices and cotton in large quantities. England acquired a number of colonies and founded a few settlements.

      As regards transport, the old roads were in a very bad condition. Navigation by sea and river was very slow. There were yet no railways or aero planes. There was the necessity of improving the means of transport. John Metcalf, Thomas Telford and John Macadam (1756-1836) made tremendous improvements in the art of road construction. Gravel, stone and tar were used in making pucca roads and a network of roads was laid all over the country. Travelling by coach became more comfortable and transport quicker.

      According to a distinguished British historian, “Macadamising was not only, in its liberal sense, a practical work of great public utility; it became a symbol of all progress and was metaphorically used in common, parlance for any aspect of a new age where improved and uniform scientific methods were in demand.”

      As heavy goods could not be carried to distant places by means of roads, it was decided to use water for transport purposes. The Duke of Bridgewater (1736-1803) employed Brindley (1716-1772) to design the Bridgewater Canal from Worsely to Manchester. After that, Mersey and Calder canals were dug.

      George Stephenson (1781-1848) is called the father of steam locomotive. He invented the first locomotive for hauling coal over iron rails. It moved at a speed of 3 miles an hour. Gradually, it was improved. By 1823, a locomotive factory was established at Newcastle. At the opening of the Liverpool-Manchester Railway in 1830 the locomotive moved at the speed of 30 miles an hour. The invention of locomotives and introduction of railways were a great boon to mankind. It became possible to transport goods more speedily and cheaply from one part of the country to another.

      The motive power of steam was also applied to transport by sea. In 1807, a steamboat constructed by Robert Fulton sailed from New York to Albany, a distance of 150 miles in 32 hours. The first regular steamboat service in Great Britain was inaugurated in 1812 on the Clyde between Glasgow and Greenock by a boat called the Comet.

      In 1819, the first steamship, the Savannah, crossed the Atlantic from the United States to England in 29 days with the help of sails. In 1838, two steamers crossed the Atlantic without sails in 18 and 15 days respectively. Until about 1870, sailing vessels competed successfully with steamships. After 1878, steamships demonstrated their superiority. Early steamships were made of wood. In 1843 the first iron steamship crossed the Atlantic.

      Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads. Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s, to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust. Newly engineered roads were built by John Metcalf, Thomas Telford, and John Macadam. The major turnpikes radiated from London and were the means by which the Royal Mail was able to reach the rest of the country. Heavy goods were transported along the roads by means of slow, broad wheeled carts hauled by teams of horses. Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horses. Stage coaches transported rich people. The less wealthy walked or paid to ride on a carrier cart.

      At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea. Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed. Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea.

      The Industrial Revolution improved Britain’s transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal, and waterway network, and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.

  13. The quantity demanded of a commodity is a function of many variables. Categorize these variables and explain them. What distinguishes one category from the other?

    1. The quantity demanded of a commodity is a function of many variables. These include;
      1. The price of the commodity
      2. The prices of other commodities
      3. The income of the household
      4. Various ‘sociological’ factors, and
      5. The tastes and preference of the house­hold.

      When qdn is the quantity that the household demands of some commodity, say n; pn is its price; p, …pn-1, are the prices of all other commodities’; Y is the income of the household; and S is a expression of various sociological factors, such as the number of children in the family, its place of residence (e.g., big city, small town, village). The form of the demand function, D, is determined by the tastes of the members of the household.
      The demand function is a mathematical expression of the relation between the quantity demanded of a commodity and its various determinate—several variables listed on the right hand side. The form of the function determines the sign and the magni­tude of that dependence.

    1. The three main sectors of the economy are:
      Primary sector – extraction of raw materials – mining, fishing and agriculture.
      Secondary / manufacturing sector – concerned with producing finished goods, e.g. factories making toys, cars, food, and clothes.
      Service / ‘tertiary’ sector – concerned with offering intangible goods and services to consumers. This includes retail, tourism, banking, entertainment and I.T. services.

      Primary sector

      The primary sector is sometimes known as the extraction sector – because it involves taking raw materials. These can be renewable resources, such as fish, wool and wind power. Or it can be the use of non-renewable resources, such as oil extraction, mining for coal.

      Secondary or manufacturing industry

      The manufacturing industry takes raw materials and combines them to produce a higher value added finished product. For example, raw sheep wool can be spun to form a better quality wool. This wool can then be threaded and knitted to produce a jumper that can be worn.

      Service / tertiary sector

      The service sector is concerned with the intangible aspect of offering services to consumers and business. It involves retail of the manufactured goods. It also provides services, such as insurance and banking. In the twentieth century, the service sector has grown due to improved labour productivity and higher disposable income. More disposable income enables more spending on ‘luxury’ service items, such as tourism and restaurants.

  14. compare and contrast the great empire and the industrial revolution and how it affect transportation

    1. THE GREAT EMPIRE AND TRANSPORTATION

      Ancient Romans traveled by land and sea. From earliest times the Romans displayed remarkable skill at building and engineering. They constructed bridges across the river Tiber, aqueducts to supply Rome with water, and sewers to drain the forum and keep the city healthy.
      As they expanded their power across Italy, the Romans linked the capital with other communities they had conquered by a network known as the famous Roman roads so well designed that many still lie beneath the motorways of modern Italy.
      After the neglect of the provinces during the civil wars, Augustus was determined to improve the infrastructure to promote economic growth. During the first two centuries AD, war was relatively infrequent, and Augustus and his successors kept their troops busy with military construction. A great network of roads, bridges, and canals opened the interior of Gaul to Roman commerce and cultural influence.

      Rome’s military engineers were skilled surveyors who designed numerous vast projects in the provinces that the troops helped to build: fortified camps, frontier walls, roads, canals, bridges, arches, baths, and temples. These projects and other legionary expenditures helped the provincial economies by providing work for local merchants, craftspeople, farmers, and the usual range of camp followers.

      Expansion of the Roman Empire was both facilitated by and an impetus to the development of an efficient system of roads. They were usually built by a consul or other important magistrate, starting in the early Republic.
      The roads were important militarily, as they bound together the steadily growing Roman Empire. A good road would shed water during the rainy season and permit travel at a rapid pace during all kinds of weather.

      They were surfaced with stone paving blocks, had a drainage ditch on each side and were crowned to shed water. The major Roman roads were built upon a foundation of carefully laid rock which was constructed from a large ditch dug into the underlying earth. In this way, if the ground became waterlogged, a tight foundation layer helped prevent anyone traveling on the road from sinking out of sight in the mud.

      City streets were paved with large fitted stones lain upon a foundation of rock also.
      Roman civil engineering made it possible for the Romans to travel almost as efficiently by road as by ship, although the Romans usually preferred to travel by sea to towns on the coast, if they were given a choice. Roads were often frequented by bandits and one who traveled without a good company of slaves and armed retainers risked losing his or her life.
      The few inns at which a traveler could find lodging for the night were of dubious quality at best and were downright risky at times. Most innkeepers were crooks, the food was bad, and the inns were frequented by cutthroats and drunks. All kinds of lice and other insects infested the bedding, and the traveler might not even find a bed at all because they were all taken by other guests by the time he arrived at the inn.

      Occasions for road travel included army officers on business, government magistrates traveling between Rome and their posts, students journeying to Athens to complete their education at the universities there, and imperial postal couriers carrying messages and letters. Travel for enjoyment and long journeys by foot were almost unheard of in Roman society.

      The rich often traveled lying down in a litter carried on the shoulders of slaves or seated in a sedan chair, also carried by slaves. Military officers traveled on horseback and the Roman army had stations at which a courier or officer could exchange a tired mount for a fresh one. Intimate knowledge of this system of relay stations enabled the emperor Constantine as a young man to escape the court of Galerius to rejoin his father in Britain.
      The streets in Rome and other large cities were crowded and narrow. Freight was delivered by wagons at night, as wagons were banned from the city by day because of the congestion. Travel within the cities was often done on foot by rich and poor alike. The proper way for a wealthy woman of Senatorial rank to travel was by carpentum, a large four wheel covered coach. Additionally, she could travel by litter, just like the men.

      Means of transportation that permit uninterrupted movement on land, water, or in air, in any combination, or through all the markedly different conditions that exist within a medium, have never been contrived. Hence, the conduct of long-distance trade required the establishment of settlements wherever environmental variations along routes required the transfer of goods and travelers from one mode of transportation to another. A number of the major cities of the world originated as settlements at what were break-in bulk points for the transportation systems of the time.

      The early empires. The sociopolitical epoch of small city-states was followed by the period of large nation-states and empires which exploited their transportation resources—in conjunction with combined population, military, and diplomatic advantages—in order to establish integrated rule over vast areas containing many formerly independent units linked only by trade relations. These large political units owed their success and stability in large part to the development, maintenance, and operation of improved transport nets, which facilitated rapid movement of the considerable quantities of military, political, and economic goods and personnel so necessary to a large integrated nation. To a degree no longer the case, the transportation networks of the time were also the communication networks. The road systems of the Romans, the Incas, and the Mayas provide classic illustrations of these systems (Cooley 1894), although mastery of water transport was often equally critical. Within the borders of such nations space represented a cost of ordered integration, being paid for in the value of resources committed to transportation. In fact, the boundaries of these early empires were determined to a great extent by their relatively primitive means of transportation; seas, mountains, and rivers set natural limits to expansion.

      After the period of the early great empires and a period of decline or arrested growth in the West during the Middle Ages, came the period of newer territorially diffused empires of Western nations. In this modern era, initiated by trade revivals and characterized by more advanced levels of social organization and cultural accomplishment, transportation was, as the case of Great Britain so well exemplifies, a key to empire. At least in its inception, the course to empire was intertwined with knowledge of and capacity for marine transportation. While contiguous segments were linked by road, canal, and, later, rail nets, maintenance of effective central organization and control of dispersed colonies depended upon reliable and dependable navies and merchant marines. Toward the end of the period of imperialism, innovations in rail and road transportation had so enhanced the ability of imperialist nations both to organize the mother country and to exploit a few particularly desirable colonies that large empires were no longer as advantageous as they were in the nineteenth century (Wolfe 1963, pp. 70-91). Of course, the assertion by most former colonies of their independence left the imperialist nations little choice in this respect.
      Modern air transport technology, in a world in which major powers conduct their foreign affairs with subtle and covert techniques of influence and exploitation, has all but obviated recent geographic patterns of empire and spheres of control by affording rapid access to any point on the globe. Not only may such empires no longer be desirable or necessary, but aircraft, as yet, cannot sustain indefinitely the large-scale movements of goods and persons necessary for building and maintaining them. In contrast, modern transportation innovations have enabled expansion of the land boundaries of the larger, more powerful nations, often permitting them to surmount former environmental barriers. However, even today, major barriers like the Pamir Knot or the Andes, particularly when approached through equally difficult environments for land or water transport, act as restraints on expansion into contiguous areas.

      INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND TRANSPORTATION
      The term “Industrial Revolution” was coined by Auguste Blanqui, a French economist, in 1837 to denote the economic and social changes arising out of the transition from industries carried in the homes with simple instruments, to industries in factories with power-driven machinery in Britain, but it came into vogue when Arnold Toynbee, the great historian, used it in 1882.
      The Industrial Revolution brought a series of changes in the methods of manufacture, production and distribution and drastically affected the economic and social life of the people.
      Ship-building was an old and popular industry in England. England had a powerful navy which had defeated all her rivals like the Dutch and the French. She was the undisputed mistress of the seas. This enabled her to build up an enormous and lucrative trade. Her ships sailed to many parts of the world and brought raw material, tobacco, tea, sugar, spices and cotton in large quantities. England acquired a number of colonies and founded a few settlements.
      As regards transport, the old roads were in a very bad condition. Navigation by sea and river was very slow. There were yet no railways or aero planes. There was the necessity of improving the means of transport. John Metcalf, Thomas Telford and John Macadam (1756-1836) made tremendous improvements in the art of road construction. Gravel, stone and tar were used in making pucca roads and a network of roads was laid all over the country. Travelling by coach became more comfortable and transport quicker.
      According to a distinguished British historian, “Macadamising was not only, in its liberal sense, a practical work of great public utility; it became a symbol of all progress and was metaphorically used in common, parlance for any aspect of a new age where improved and uniform scientific methods were in demand.”
      As heavy goods could not be carried to distant places by means of roads, it was decided to use water for transport purposes. The Duke of Bridgewater (1736-1803) employed Brindley (1716-1772) to design the Bridgewater Canal from Worsely to Manchester. After that, Mersey and Calder canals were dug.
      George Stephenson (1781-1848) is called the father of steam locomotive. He invented the first locomotive for hauling coal over iron rails. It moved at a speed of 3 miles an hour. Gradually, it was improved. By 1823, a locomotive factory was established at Newcastle. At the opening of the Liverpool-Manchester Railway in 1830 the locomotive moved at the speed of 30 miles an hour. The invention of locomotives and introduction of railways were a great boon to mankind. It became possible to transport goods more speedily and cheaply from one part of the country to another.
      The motive power of steam was also applied to transport by sea. In 1807, a steamboat constructed by Robert Fulton sailed from New York to Albany, a distance of 150 miles in 32 hours. The first regular steamboat service in Great Britain was inaugurated in 1812 on the Clyde between Glasgow and Greenock by a boat called the Comet.
      In 1819, the first steamship, the Savannah, crossed the Atlantic from the United States to England in 29 days with the help of sails. In 1838, two steamers crossed the Atlantic without sails in 18 and 15 days respectively. Until about 1870, sailing vessels competed successfully with steamships. After 1878, steamships demonstrated their superiority. Early steamships were made of wood. In 1843 the first iron steamship crossed the Atlantic.
      Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads. Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s, to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of some turnpike trust. Newly engineered roads were built by John Metcalf, Thomas Telford, and John Macadam. The major turnpikes radiated from London and were the means by which the Royal Mail was able to reach the rest of the country. Heavy goods were transported along the roads by means of slow, broad wheeled carts hauled by teams of horses. Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horses. Stage coaches transported rich people. The less wealthy walked or paid to ride on a carrier cart.
      At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea. Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed. Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea.
      The Industrial Revolution improved Britain’s transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal, and waterway network, and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.

    1. First we must know that the energy stored in the magnetic field of an inductor can cause damage in circuits that switch the current through an inductor on and off. For instance, if one uses a transistor to switch the current through an inductor, the collapsing magnetic field when the transistor switches off puts a forward bias on the transistor junction that is connected to the coil, and could drive a large enough current through it to do damage, either to the transistor itself or to other components connected to it. The arcing that occurs in mechanical switches that apply current to inductors can damage the switch contacts and greatly shorten the life of the switch.
      To prevent this, one places a large diode across the coil to provide a path for the reverse current that results from the field collapse.
      One can also use a series resistor/capacitor combination, called a “snubber” network, placed either across the inductor or across the switch, to absorb the energy(Spark) released when the switch opens.

    1. Mendel was curious about how traits were transferred from one generation to the next, so he set out to understand the principles of heredity in the mid-1860s. Peas were a good model system, because he could easily control their fertilization by transferring pollen with a small paintbrush. This pollen could come from the same flower (self-fertilization), or it could come from another plant’s flowers (cross-fertilization). First, Mendel observed plant forms and their offspring for two years as they self-fertilized, or “selfed,” and ensured that their outward, measurable characteristics remained constant in each generation. During this time, Mendel observed seven different characteristics in the pea plants, and each of these characteristics had two forms (Figure 3). The characteristics included height (tall or short), pod shape (inflated or constricted), seed shape (smooth or winkled), pea color (green or yellow), and so on. In the years Mendel spent letting the plants self, he verified the purity of his plants by confirming, for example, that tall plants had only tall children and grandchildren and so forth. Because the seven pea plant characteristics tracked by Mendel were consistent in generation after generation of self-fertilization, these parental lines of peas could be considered pure-breeders (or, in modern terminology, homozygous for the traits of interest). Mendel and his assistants eventually developed 22 varieties of pea plants with combinations of these consistent characteristics.
      Mendel not only crossed pure-breeding parents, but he also crossed hybrid generations and crossed the hybrid progeny back to both parental lines. These crosses (which, in modern terminology, are referred to as F1, F1 reciprocal, F2, B1, and B2) are the classic crosses to generate genetically hybrid generations
      When conducting his experiments, Mendel designated the two pure-breeding parental generations involved in a particular cross as P1 and P2, and he then denoted the progeny resulting from the crossing as the filial, or F1, generation. Although the plants of the F1 generation looked like one parent of the P generation, they were actually hybrids of two different parent plants. Upon observing the uniformity of the F1 generation, Mendel wondered whether the F1 generation could still possess the non dominant traits of the other parent in some hidden way.
      For more information click https://basic2tech.wordpress.com/2016/10/29/mendels-theory-of-genetics/

    1. Some of the types of Microsoft Program include:
      Microsoft Access :is a database management system (DBMS) from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software-development tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office suite of applications, included in the Professional and higher editions or sold separately.
      Microsoft Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases.
      Microsoft Excel: is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications. It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office.
      Microsoft Word: is a word processor developed by Microsoft. It was first released on October 25, 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems. Subsequent versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), Apple Macintosh running Classic Mac OS (1985), AT&T Unix PC (1985), Atari ST (1988), OS/2 (1989),Microsoft Windows (1989), SCO Unix (1994), and macOS (2001). Commercial versions of Word are licensed as a standalone product or as a component of Microsoft Office, Windows RT or the discontinued Microsoft Works suite. Microsoft Word Viewer and Office Online are freeware editions of Word with limited features.
      Skype: is an application that provides video chat and voice call services. Users may exchange such digital documents as images, text, video and any others, and may transmit both text and video messages. Skype allows the creation of video conference calls. Skype is based on a freemium model. Much of the service is free, but Skype Credit or a subscription is required to call a landline or a mobile phone number.
      Outlook.com: is a web-based suite of webmail, contacts, tasks, and calendaring services from Microsoft. One of the world’s first webmail services, it was founded in 1996 as Hotmail (stylized as HoTMaiL) by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith in Mountain View, California, and headquartered in Sunnyvale.Outlook.com follows Microsoft’s Metro design language, closely mimicking the interface of Microsoft Outlook. It also features unlimited storage, a calendar, contacts management, Ajax, and close integration with OneDrive, Office Online and Skype

  15. (1)state the meaning of ozone layer depletion.
    (2)state the importance of the ozone layer depliction
    (3)state two effects of ozone layer depliction to living things

    1. What is Ozone Depletion?

      Ozone layer depletion, is simply the wearing out (reduction) of the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Unlike pollution, which has many types and causes, Ozone depletion has been pinned down to one major human activity. The ozone layer contains about 90 percent of Earth’s ozone. It is part of Earth’s stratosphere and lies between 6 and 30 miles above the planet’s surface.
      Industries that manufacture things like insulating foams, solvents, soaps, cooling things like Air Conditioners, Refrigerators and ‘Take-Away’ containers use something called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These substances are heavier than air, but over time, (2-5years) they are carried high into the stratosphere by wind action.

      The importance of the ozone layer

      The ozone layer is important because it filters harmful ultraviolet radiation as it travels from the sun to the surface of the Earth. These ultraviolet rays can harm both plant and animal life. Ozone is a gas in the atmosphere that protects everything living on the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the Sun. Without the layer of ozone in the atmosphere, it would be very difficult for anything to survive on the surface. (Think of a very bad sunburn, only much worse!) Plants cannot live and grow in heavy ultraviolet radiation, nor can the plankton that serve as food for most of the ocean life. The ozone layer acts as a shield to absorb the UV rays, and keep them from doing damage at the Earth’s surface.

      Effects of ozone layer depletion to living things.

      Depletion of the ozone layer has consequences on humans, animals and plants. This typically results from higher Ultraviolet(UV) rays reaching us on earth.

      Humans

      Research confirms that high levels of Uitraviolet (UV) Rays cause non-melanoma skin cancer. Additionally, it plays a major role in malignant melanoma development. Ultra violet is also linked to cataracts (a disease of the eye which clouds the eye’s lens).

      Plants

      The damage that extreme UV levels has on plants is one that our eyes do not see much, but humans can feel the impact. Plant growth, as well as its physiological and developmental processes are all affected negatively. These include the way plants form, timing of development and growth, distribution of plant nutrients and metabolism, etc. These changes can have important implications for plant competitive balance, animals that feed on these plants, plant diseases, and biogeochemical cycles.

      Marine (or water) Ecosystems

      Phytoplankton form the foundation of aquatic food webs. These usually grow closer to the surface of water, where there is enough sunlight. Changes in UV levels is known to affect the development and growth of phytoplankton, and naturally, the fish that feed on them. UV radiation is also know to have affect the development stages of of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians and other animals. When this happens, animals in the upper food chain that feed on these tiny fishes are all affected.

  16. What effect do you believe that certain environmental business practices have on international business?

    1. Different Countries have unique government systems, laws and regulations, taxes, duties, currencies, cultures, practices, etc. international business is decidedly more complex that business that operates exclusively in domestic markets. Lets consider the effect of environmental practices on international business based on economic, political and cultural environment. These environment has a great influence on international business.

      Economic Environment

      The economic environment may be very different from one country to the next. The economy of countries may be industrialized (developed), emerging (newly industrializing), or less developed (third world). Further, within each of these economies are a vast array of variations, which have a major effect on everything from education and infrastructure to technology and healthcare.
      A nation’s economic structure as a free market, centrally planned market, or mixed market also plays a distinct role in the ease at which international business efforts can take place. For example, free market economies allow international business activities to take place with little interference. On the opposite end of the spectrum, centrally planned economies are government-controlled. Although most countries now function as free-market economies, China—the world’s most populous country—remains a centrally planned economy.

      Political Environment

      The political environment of international business refers to the relationship between government and business, as well as the political risk of a nation. Therefore, companies involved in international business must expect to deal with different types of governments, such as multi-party democracies, one-party states, dictatorships, and constitutional monarchies.
      Some governments may view foreign businesses as positive, while other governments may view them as exploitative. Because international companies rely on the goodwill of the government, international business must take the political structure of the foreign government into consideration.
      International firms must also consider the degree of political risk in a foreign location; in other words, the likelihood of major governmental changes taking place. Just a few of the issues of unstable governments that international companies must consider include riots, revolutions, war, and terrorism.

      Cultural Environment

      The cultural environment of a foreign nation remains a critical component of the international business environment, yet it is one of the most difficult to understand. The cultural environment of a foreign nation involves commonly shared beliefs and values, formed by factors such as language, religion, geographic location, government, history, and education.
      It is common for many international firms to conduct a cultural analysis of a foreign nation as to better understand these factors and how they affect international business efforts.

    1. According to Mintzberg, “Every organized human activity – from the making of pottery to the placing of a man on the moon – gives rise to two fundamental and opposing requirements: the division of labour into various tasks to be performed and the coordination of those tasks to accomplish the activity.”20 Structure is simply the way in which an organization divides labour into distinct tasks and achieves coordination of these tasks.21 According to Henry Mintzberg, organizations have only a few basic structures or configurations. These are identified by how key organizational attributes – such as organizations’ component parts, the mechanisms they use to coordinate their work, the elements of their organizational design, their power systems, and their external environment – interrelate in various ways as parts of the total organizational system. Mintzberg’s seven basic organizational configurations are: 1) the entrepreneurial, 2) the machine, 3) the diversified, 4) the professional,5) the innovative, 6) the missionary, and 7) the political. Configuration, Mintzberg argues, is necessary for organizations to achieve stability in their internal characteristics, create synergy in their work processes, and establish a fit with their external environment. As well, argues Mintzberg, an understanding of the dynamics of configuration is essential to those seeking a better understanding of organizations.

      One major advantage of using Mintzberg’s ideas in archival appraisal is that they recognize that not every organization has the same structure; some are very “structured,” while others seem to have almost no structure in the traditional Weberian sense. Furthermore, as David Bearman points out, the particular culture of each organization and their individual cultural contexts influence the interplay of structure, function, processes, and records.19 While archivists acknowledge that each organization is unique and have come to accept that organizations are more administratively complex than the Weberian model, many still understand context of creation in terms of one, usually Weberian, model of the organization – albeit with slight variations on the theme drawn from what can be termed ‘neo-Weberian’ thinking. Mintzberg offers seven basic organizational archetypes, most quite different from the Weberian model, while allowing for individual variations arising from various factors such as the organization’s particular culture and its broader cultural context.

      Besides, his concept of organizational structure is not structural in the classical sense, but functional. Mintzberg is essentially concerned with how organizations work (or function), because, as a specialist in management theory, he is aiming to prescribe effective organizational designs. In the classical sense, structure refers to administrative structure, to the organizational unit responsible, for example, for the creation and maintenance of a given set of records. Mintzberg instead uses the term structure in a neo-functionalist sense, that is, as the various components of an organizational system fitted together to achieve system functionality. It is in using Mintzberg’s ideas on how the structural components of an organizational system function, as opposed to focussing on what the organization specifically does (such as the particular type of health services that a hospital may provide), that archivists gain a powerful analytical tool for identifying and prioritizing sites for archivally significant records..

  17. the impact the periods of the great empires and industrial Revolution had on the development of travel and transportation industry

    1. The impact the periods of the “Great Empires had on the development of the travel and transportation industry.
      Ancient Romans traveled by land and sea. From earliest times the Romans displayed remarkable skill at building and engineering. They constructed bridges across the river Tiber, aqueducts to supply Rome with water, and sewers to drain the forum and keep the city healthy.
      As they expanded their power across Italy, the Romans linked the capital with other communities they had conquered by a network known as the famous Roman roads so well designed that many still lie beneath the motorways of modern Italy.
      After the neglect of the provinces during the civil wars, Augustus was determined to improve the infrastructure to promote economic growth. During the first two centuries AD, war was relatively infrequent, and Augustus and his successors kept their troops busy with military construction. A great network of roads, bridges, and canals opened the interior of Gaul to Roman commerce and cultural influence.
      Rome’s military engineers were skilled surveyors who designed numerous vast projects in the provinces that the troops helped to build: fortified camps, frontier walls, roads, canals, bridges, arches, baths, and temples. These projects and other legionary expenditures helped the provincial economies by providing work for local merchants, craftspeople, farmers, and the usual range of camp followers.
      Expansion of the Roman Empire was both facilitated by and an impetus to the development of an efficient system of roads. They were usually built by a consul or other important magistrate, starting in the early Republic.
      The roads were important militarily, as they bound together the steadily growing Roman Empire. A good road would shed water during the rainy season and permit travel at a rapid pace during all kinds of weather.
      They were surfaced with stone paving blocks, had a drainage ditch on each side and were crowned to shed water. The major Roman roads were built upon a foundation of carefully laid rock which was constructed from a large ditch dug into the underlying earth. In this way, if the ground became waterlogged, a tight foundation layer helped prevent anyone traveling on the road from sinking out of sight in the mud.
      City streets were paved with large fitted stones lain upon a foundation of rock also.
      Roman civil engineering made it possible for the Romans to travel almost as efficiently by road as by ship, although the Romans usually preferred to travel by sea to towns on the coast, if they were given a choice. Roads were often frequented by bandits and one who traveled without a good company of slaves and armed retainers risked losing his or her life.
      The few inns at which a traveler could find lodging for the night were of dubious quality at best and were downright risky at times. Most innkeepers were crooks, the food was bad, and the inns were frequented by cutthroats and drunks. All kinds of lice and other insects infested the bedding, and the traveler might not even find a bed at all because they were all taken by other guests by the time he arrived at the inn.
      Transportation in the Middle Ages was very much based on the methods and innovations that came before. While the Romans showed innovation in building a network of roads across their Empire, the Middle Ages saw a decline in ease and access of transportation.The once prevalent interconnected roads and bridges system collapsed with the fall of Rome and even those roads that remained from the dynasty of the Roman Empire had long fallen into poor conditions.
      The roads reverted to uneven and furrowed dirt paths, which was disadvantageous in inclement weather. With the rising popularity of wheeled-carts, smooth roads were very much needed again, as wheels could not roll over shaky or unstable ground.
      Ships were also renovated both in building techniques and design in order to fit larger quantities of cargo and transport said cargo (or people) over longer distances.
      The rise in transportation in the Middle Ages allowed for an increase in trade and travel throughout Europe. Merchants of all types of goods were able to gain access to foreign markets and take more products with them, which highly benefited the economy.
      The most famous benefit of the strides made in improving transportation in the Middle Ages was the discovery of the Americas or the “New World,” which brought new types of goods (e.g., spices) to Europe and promoted communication and travel. Transportation was essential to not only the economic benefit and development of Europe but also the social improvement.
      Transportation by both land and sea during this time was integral to the booming economy and major innovations that resulted in the eras after the Middle Ages.

      The impact the periods of the “Industrial Revolution” had on the development of the travel and transportation industry.

      Before the Industrial Revolution, there was a time lag in almost everything that took place. It took weeks and sometimes months just to send a letter or pass information. It took months to send packages or goods across the country. Everything happened at a glacial pace. The Transportation Revolution changed all of that.
      The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the late 1700s, manufacturing was often done in people’s homes, using handtools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety of manufactured goods and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor and working classes.
      The transportation industry also underwent significant transformation during the Industrial Revolution. Before the advent of the steam engine, raw materials and finished goods were hauled and distributed via horse-drawn wagons, and by boats along canals and rivers. In the early 1800s, American Robert Fulton (1765-1815) built the first commercially successful steamboat, and by the mid-19th century, steamships were carrying freight across the Atlantic. As steam-powered ships were making their debut, the steam locomotive was also coming into use. In the early 1800s, British engineer Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) constructed the first railway steam locomotive. In 1830, England’s Liverpool and Manchester Railway became the first to offer regular, timetabled passenger services. By 1850, Britain had more than 6,000 miles of railroad track. Additionally, around 1820, Scottish engineer John McAdam (1756-1836) developed a new process for road construction. His technique, which became known as macadam, resulted in roads that were smoother, more durable and less muddy.
      The five elements that revolutionized transportation are:
      Roads
      River Traffic
      Steamboats
      Canals
      Railroads
      Roads
      Before the Industrial Revolution, there were very few roads, and even they were in bad condition. They were muddy, flooded easily, and were filled with boulders. This made travel by stagecoach or wagon very difficult and dangerous.
      That all changed in 1817. In 1817, Congress authorized the construction of the National Road, also known as the Cumberland Road. This road extended from Maryland to the Ohio River at Wheeling, Virginia. This was the first road to cross the Appalachian Mountains into the territory known as the Old Northwest. The National Road was the largest road-building project to occur before the 20th century, and it was a route of crushed stone. Although this is not as advanced as roads later became, it was a huge improvement! Crushed stone was much easier to travel over. It would not get muddy or flood. Along with the National Road, states chartered turnpikes, or toll roads. These roads not only provided easier and quicker travel, but also collected revenue for the states. Roads made transportation by wagon much faster than it was before.
      Railroads
      Of all the advancements of the Transportation Revolution, the construction of railroads was the most significant. The first railroads carried goods for short distances, but the idea of a railroad sparked interest. Inventors and engineers wanted to be able to develop a railroad that could be used to carry goods or even passengers long distance. In 1826, a group of businessmen launched the first American railway, named the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O). After the success of the B&O in Maryland, many other companies began building railroads. However, many problems emerged. Railroads were expensive and were hastily built. There were many accidents and delays. Also, different companies used different widths of track, so only certain trains could travel on certain railroads. In 1830, Robert Livingston Stevens solved this problem by designing an iron T-shaped rail. After this invention, railroads grew from three thousand miles to thirty thousand miles in only 20 years. Shipping costs greatly decreased and industry expanded. This also contributed to the Market Revolution.

    1. Henri Fayol’s management theory is a simple model of how management interacts with personnel. Fayol’s management theory covers concepts in a broad way, so almost any business can apply his theory of management.
      The management theory of Henri Fayol includes 14 principles of management. From these principles, Fayol concluded that management should interact with personnel in five basic ways in order to control and plan production.

      Planning. According to Fayol’s theory, management must plan and schedule every part of industrial processes.
      Organizing. Henri Fayol argued that in addition to planning a manufacturing process, management must also make certain all of the necessary resources (raw materials, personnel, etc.) came together at the appropriate time of production.
      Commanding. Henri Fayol’s management theory states that management must encourage and direct personnel activity.
      Coordinating. According to the management theory of Henri Fayol, management must make certain that personnel works together in a cooperative fashion.
      Controlling. The final management activity, according to Henri Fayol, is for the manager to evaluate and ensure that personnel follow management’s commands.
      As regards organizing, Henri Fayol stated that ‘Organising is as much about lines of responsibility and authority as it is about communication flow and the use of resources.

      Fayol lays down the following organisation duties for managers:
      Ensure the plan is judiciously prepared and strictly carried out, see that human and material structures are consistent with objectives, resources and general operating policies, set up a single guiding authority and establish lines of communication throughout the organisation, harmonise activities and coordinate efforts, formulate clear distinct and precise decisions arrange for efficient personnel selection, define duties clearly, encourage a liking for initiative and responsibility, offer fair and suitable recompense for
      services rendered, make use of sanctions in cases of fault and error, maintain discipline, ensure that individual interests are subordinated to the general interest, pay special attention to the authority of command, supervise both material and human order, have everything under contro,l fight against an excess of regulations, red tape and paperwork.

    1. BOILS
      A boil is a skin infection that starts in a hair follicle or oil gland. At first, the skin turns red in the area of the infection, and a tender lump develops. After four to seven days, the lump starts turning white as pus collects under the skin. The most common places for boils to appear are on the face, neck, armpits, shoulders, and buttocks.
      Causes of Boils
      Most boils are caused by a germ (staphylococcal bacteria). This germ enters the body through tiny nicks or cuts in the skin or can travel down the hair to the follicle.
      Problems with the immune system
      Poor nutrition
      Poor hygiene
      Exposure to harsh chemicals that irritate the skin
      Symptoms of Boils
      A boil starts as a hard, red, painful lump usually about half an inch in size. Over the next few days, the lump becomes softer, larger, and more painful. Soon a pocket of pus forms on the top of the boil. These are the signs of a severe infection:
      The skin around the boil becomes infected. It turns red, painful, warm, and swollen.
      More boils may appear around the original one.
      A fever may develop.
      Lymph nodes may become swollen.

      Prevention Of Boil
      Bathe or shower regularly to keep your skin and hair clean.
      Dry your skin thoroughly after bathing.
      Avoid sharing razor
      Avoid sharing bedding, towels, wash cloths, or clothing with someone who suffers from boils or staph infections
      Treat wounds properly

      CANCER
      Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.When cancer begins, it produces no symptoms. Signs and symptoms appear as the mass grows or ulcerates.

      Causes of Cancer
      The majority of cancers, some 90–95% of cases, are due to environmental factors.
      The remaining 5–10% are due to inherited genetics.
      Common environmental factors that contribute to cancer death include tobacco (25–30%), diet and Obesity (30–35%), infections (15–20%), radiation (both ionizing and non-ionizing, up to 10%), Stress,
      Lack of physical activity and environmental pollutants.

      Symptoms Of Cancer
      Skin changes,
      Pain,
      Unexplained weight loss,
      Change in Bowel habit,
      Unusual bleeding or discharged, e.t.c

      Prevention Of Cancer
      Cancer could be prevented by avoiding risk factors including: tobacco, exposure to radiation, excess weight/obesity, insufficient diet, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections and air pollution

      HYPERTENSION.
      Hypertension is defined as blood pressure higher than 140 over 90 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). Hypertension itself does not cause symptoms but in the long-term leads to complications caused by narrowing of blood vessels.

      Causes of hypertension
      Smoking
      Being overweight or obese
      Lack of physical activity
      Too much salt in the diet
      Too much alcohol consumption (more than 1 to 2 drinks per day)
      Stress
      Older age
      Genetics
      Family history of high blood pressure

      Symptoms of Hypertension
      Severe headache.
      Fatigue or confusion.
      Vision problems.
      Chest pain.
      Difficulty breathing.
      Irregular heartbeat.
      Blood in the urine.
      Pounding in your chest, neck, or ears.

      Prevention of Hypertension
      Eating a balanced diet,
      Reducing Salt intake
      Maintaining a healthy weight
      Manage Stress
      Enjoy Regular physical Activity
      Monitor your Blood Pressure.

    1. Some of the Economic Activities in Nigeria include;
      Financial sector
      Communication Sector
      Petroleum industry
      Agriculture
      Transports
      Construction
      Private businesses

    1. 1.Religious: perhaps the most commonly held belief today is that terrorism is caused by religion. Though it is not the main cause for terrorism, religion does play a significant role in driving some forms of it. Many terrorist get wrong understanding in religion.
      2.Social and political injustice: People choose terrorism when they are trying to right what they perceive to be a social or political or historical wrong—when they have been stripped of their land or rights, or denied these.
      3.The belief that violence or its threat will be effective. Another way of saying this is: the belief that violent means justify the ends. Many terrorists in history said sincerely that they choose violence after long deliberation, because they felt they had no choice.
      4.Illiteracy: Lack of education amongst the people has been put forward as a prime reason of terrorism. Uneducated person are easy to be persuaded to commit the crime because they have no high ability of thinking.
      5. Injustice: Injustice is a cause of terrorism. People get offended and hurt by the justice system that they choose to resort to acts of violence in order to protest the on- going injustice.

  18. Write a short definition on the following forms of database.
    1)Flat file database
    2)Relational database
    3)Hierarchical model database
    4)Network database
    5)Operational database
    6)Distributed database
    7)End user database

    1. 1).Flat File Database:A flat file database is a database which is stored on its host computer system as an ordinary unstructured file called a “flat file”. To access the structure of the data and manipulate it, the file must be read in its entirety into the computer’s memory. Upon completion of the database operations, the file is again written out in its entirety to the host’s file system
      2).Relational Databases:This is the most common of all the different types of databases. In this, the data in a relational database is stored in various data tables. Each table has a key field which is used to connect it to other tables. Hence all the tables are related to each other through several key fields. These databases are extensively used in various industries and will be the one you are most likely to come across when working in IT. Examples of relational databases are Oracle, Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server.
      3). Hierarchical model database:As its name implies, the Hierarchical Database Model defines hierarchically-arranged data.The hierarchical data model organizes data in a tree structure. There is a hierarchy of parent and child data segments. This structure implies that a record can have repeating information, generally in the child data segments. Data in a series of records, which have a set of field values attached to it. It collects all the instances of a specific record together as a record type. These record types are the equivalent of tables in the relational model, and with the individual records being the equivalent of rows.
      4).NetWork Database: The Network Database model was designed to solve some of the more serious problems with the Hierarchical Database Model. Specifically, the Network model solves the problem of data redundancy by representing relationships in terms of sets rather than hierarchy. The model had its origins in the Conference on Data Systems Languages (CODASYL) which had created the Data Base Task Group to explore and design a method to replace the hierarchical model.
      5).Operational Databases:Operational databases (a.k.a. OLTP On Line Transaction Processing), on the other hand, are used to manage more dynamic bits of data. These types of databases allow you to do more than simply view archived data. Operational databases allow you to modify that data (add, change or delete data).
      These types of databases are usually used to track real-time information. For example, a company might have an operational database used to track warehouse/stock quantities. As customers order products from an online web store, an operational database can be used to keep track of how many items have been sold and when the company will need to reorder stock.
      6).Distributed Databases: Many organisations have several office locations, manufacturing plants, regional offices, branch offices and a head office at different geographic locations. Each of these work groups may have their own database which together will form the main database of the company. This is known as a distributed database.
      7).End-User Databases:There is a variety of data available at the workstation of all the end users of any organisation. Each workstation is like a small database in itself which includes data in spreadsheets, presentations, word files, notepads and downloaded files. All such small databases form a different type of database called the end-user database.

    2. 1).Flat File Database:A flat file database is a database which is stored on its host computer system as an ordinary unstructured file called a “flat file”. To access the structure of the data and manipulate it, the file must be read in its entirety into the computer’s memory. Upon completion of the database operations, the file is again written out in its entirety to the host’s file system
      2).Relational Databases:This is the most common of all the different types of databases. In this, the data in a relational database is stored in various data tables. Each table has a key field which is used to connect it to other tables. Hence all the tables are related to each other through several key fields. These databases are extensively used in various industries and will be the one you are most likely to come across when working in IT. Examples of relational databases are Oracle, Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server.
      3). Hierarchical model database:As its name implies, the Hierarchical Database Model defines hierarchically-arranged data.The hierarchical data model organizes data in a tree structure. There is a hierarchy of parent and child data segments. This structure implies that a record can have repeating information, generally in the child data segments. Data in a series of records, which have a set of field values attached to it. It collects all the instances of a specific record together as a record type. These record types are the equivalent of tables in the relational model, and with the individual records being the equivalent of rows.
      4).NetWork Database: The Network Database model was designed to solve some of the more serious problems with the Hierarchical Database Model. Specifically, the Network model solves the problem of data redundancy by representing relationships in terms of sets rather than hierarchy. The model had its origins in the Conference on Data Systems Languages (CODASYL) which had created the Data Base Task Group to explore and design a method to replace the hierarchical model.
      5).Operational Databases:Operational databases (a.k.a. OLTP On Line Transaction Processing), on the other hand, are used to manage more dynamic bits of data. These types of databases allow you to do more than simply view archived data. Operational databases allow you to modify that data (add, change or delete data).
      These types of databases are usually used to track real-time information. For example, a company might have an operational database used to track warehouse/stock quantities. As customers order products from an online web store, an operational database can be used to keep track of how many items have been sold and when the company will need to reorder stock.
      6).Distributed Databases: Many organisations have several office locations, manufacturing plants, regional offices, branch offices and a head office at different geographic locations. Each of these work groups may have their own database which together will form the main database of the company. This is known as a distributed database.
      7).End-User Databases:There is a variety of data available at the workstation of all the end users of any organisation. Each workstation is like a small database in itself which includes data in spreadsheets, presentations, word files, notepads and downloaded files. All such small databases form a different type of database called the end-user database.

    1. National security could be defined as the actions and policies taken by a nation against all internal and external threats to its borders, economy, and stability.
      National security then is the ability to preserve the nation’s physical integrity and territory; to maintain its economic relations with the rest of the world on reasonable terms; to preserve its nature, institution, and governance from disruption from outside; and to control its borders.
      The Importance of National Security are;
      1.It promotes Service delivery.Provision of, or people’s access to, other services such as education, health, water, sanitation and electricity.
      2.It promotes Economic growth.
      3.It helps build the confidence needed to overcome societal mistrust in violence-affected countries.
      4.National Security contributes to development outcomes including virtuous cycles of security and development, ‘with high levels of security leading to development and development further promoting security’
      5.National Security also promote private sector development.

    1. Delta State aptly illustrates the Niger Delta scenario. It is a multi-ethnic State, made up of the Urhobo, Igbo, Ijaw, Itsekiri, and Isoko ethnic groups. Under colonial rule, some of the
      people were, for administrative convenience, grouped with Benin in the Benin Province. On the other hand, the Urhobo, Isoko known as Eastern Urhobo till 1963, Ijaw and
      Itsekiri, along with the kwale-Aboh District were grouped in the Warri, renamed Delta Province in 1953.
      The diverse ethnic configuration of Delta State constituted the first major impediment to its attainment of development, the latter not narrowly viewed as growth in Gross Domestic
      Product (GDP) but broadly perceived as self sustaining transformation of society, leading to the enhanced quality of life and standard of living of the ordinary people (Ade Ajayi 2012).
      In the run up to its creation by military fiat, ethnic groups and communities in the former Delta Province had wanted a Delta State of their own, while those in the former Benin Province demanded for an Anioma State. The military, instead, created Delta State, made up of the two defunct provinces, with Asaba in the old Benin Province as capital. It was a common joke at the time that General Babangida, who created the state had as wife, an Asaba
      woman, Mrs. Maryam Babangida, and had presented Asaba as a gift to his in-laws! The people of the defunct Delta Province, especially the Urhobo, Isoko, Ijaw and Itsekiri were for a long time implacable .Tempers were high as it was openly said that Asaba would be a
      capital only in name, while Warri would function as the de facto capital. This posture delayed the infrastructural development of Asaba as capital for long, and bred mutual inter-ethnic suspicion and antagonism which until recently constituted a clog in the wheel of Delta State’s progress.

      The first military administrator of the state Group Captain (later Air Commodore) Luke Ochulor (August 1991 – January 1992), had the pioneering task of laying the foundation for the administrative structure of the state.
      The new government operated from the rented building in Asaba in the face of a major accommodation problem. The new capital, Asaba, was overwhelmed as it was clearly not prepared for its new status.
      However, Ochulor and members of his cabinet did some outstanding job by way of instituting new administration within the tenure that lasted for just five months. Efforts were made to give Asaba some status as the state capital, with the construction of some government infrastructure such as the mini-secretariat (now old secretariat) to house some of the ministries and departments.
      Ochulor handed over on January 2, 1992, to the first executive civilian governor of the state, Olorogun Felix Ibru, under General Ibrahim Babangida’s controversial transition to civil rule.
      Elected under the platform of the defunct Social Democratic Party (SDP), Governor Ibru and his team of commissioners and other state officials continued with the pioneering work initiated by Ochulor. Within his less than two years tenure, some moves were made towards the development of various sectors of state, particularly education and health.

    1. The Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE) – is an organisation established by the Federal Government and is responsible for the privatization and commercialization of enterprises in Nigeria.
      THE REASONS FOR PRIVATIZATION ARE:
      a.Formulating a strategy for rationalizing labour structure and practices.
      b.)Promote private sector involvement in the economy
      c.)Attract new or additional business and trade.
      d.)Promote private sector involvement in the economy.
      e.)Generate maximum revenue and reduce investment.
      f.)To reduce the financial and administrative burden on the public sector.
      g.)Improve efficiency and productivity of operations.

      Some of the companies that have been privatised are
      a. Power holding Company of Nigeria(PHCN).
      b. National Aviation Handling Company
      c. Ashaka Cement Company.
      d. Nicon Insurance
      e. Niger Cement PLC

  19. what is the punishment for the following crime :murder, kidnapping, certificate forgery, armed robbery

    1. 1.Murder: The only statutory punishment for murder is the death penalty accordingly “The sentence of the court upon the culprit is that he or she be hanged by the neck until the dealth of the culprit.
      2. Kidnapping:Kidnapping is punishable with imprisonment or fine at the discretion of the court. There is no limit on the fine or the term of imprisonment that may be imposed provided the sentence is not inordinate.
      3.Certificate Forgery:A person convicted of misdemeanor must face a jail sentence of at least one year. However, a conviction for felony must face an imprisonment more than one year. In addition to jail sentence, a convict can be required to pay a fine or make restitution to victim.
      4.Armed Robbery:Robbery is punishable with imprisonment for life or for any shorter term. It is also subject to the mandatory sentencing regime under the Criminal Justice Act 2003.

  20. define the following :family trait,hormones, depletion of the ozone layer,environmental hazards, nervous system.

    1. Family Trait: A family trait is a genetic likeness that is passed through parents’ genes to their children. Most specific traits are passed directly from one parent. Genetic disorders are also traits that can be passed from a parent to a child.
      Examples: All boys in family have red hair, Dad has glaucoma, all siblings get glaucoma
      Hormones: Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions. Hormones are secreted from the endocrine glands in the body. There are many types of hormones that act on different aspects of bodily functions and processes. Some of these include:
      Development and growth
      Metabolism of food items
      Sexual function and reproductive growth and health
      Cognitive function and mood
      Maintenance of body temperature and thirst.
      3.Depletion of Ozone Layer: Ozone layer depletion, is simply the wearing out (reduction) of the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Unlike pollution, which has many types and causes, Ozone depletion has been pinned down to one major human activity.

      Industries that manufacture things like insulating foams, solvents, soaps, cooling things like Air Conditioners, Refrigerators and ‘Take-Away’ containers use something called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These substances are heavier than air, but over time, (2-5 years) they are carried high into the stratosphere by wind action.

      4.Environmental Hazards: An environmental hazard is a substance, state or event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment and / or adversely affect people’s health. This term incorporates topics like pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes. Pesticides, lead, contaminated water, mercury, carbon monoxide, tobacco smoke and asbestos are types of environmental hazards that pose health risks. Many people are exposed to environmental hazards at industrial work sites or when using chemicals and appliances in private homes.

      Nervous System: The nervous system functions to process input from sensory receptors, transfer and interpret impulses and to control the functions of body’s muscles and organs.The nervous system is comprised of nerves made up of specialized cells known as neurons. The nervous system is responsible for coordinating and controlling entire functions of the body. It handles all the activities of the body and is responsible for various senses humans feel. The nervous system is a highly specialized network system that contains countless neurons, which transmit signals between different parts of the body.

    1. The generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831 -32. Faraday discovered that the above flow of electric charges could be induced by moving an electrical conductor, such as a wire that contains electric charges, in a magnetic field. This movement creates a voltage difference between the two ends of the wire or electrical conductor, which in turn causes the electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current.

    2. The generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831-32. Faraday discovered that the above flow of electric charges could be induced by moving an electrical conductor, such as a wire that contains electric charges, in a magnetic field. This movement creates a voltage difference between the two ends of the wire or electrical conductor, which in turn causes the electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current.

    1. Nuclear fission is the process in which a large nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei with the release of energy. In other words, fission the process in which a nucleus is divided into two or more fragments, and neutrons and energy are released.

      The mass changes and associated energy changes in nuclear reactions are significant. For example, the energy released from the nuclear reaction of 1 kg of uranium is equivalent to the energy released during the combustion of about four billion kilograms of coal.
      NOTE: Nucleus is the central part of an atom, usually made up of protons and neutrons.

    1. Endocrine Sysytem: The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
      The word endocrine derives from the Greek words “endo,” meaning within, and “crinis,” meaning to secrete, according to Health Mentor Online. In general, a gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. The endocrine system affects almost every organ and cell in the body.The endocrine system gets some help from organs such as the kidney, liver, heart and gonads, which have secondary endocrine functions. The kidney, for example, secretes hormones such as erythropoietin and renin.

      Diseases of the endocrine system

      Hormone levels that are too high or too low indicate a problem with the endocrine system. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones in the appropriate ways. Stress, infection, and changes in the blood’s fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels.
      The most common endocrine disease is diabetes, a condition in which the body does not properly process glucose, a simple sugar. This is due to the lack of insulin or, if the body is producing insulin, because the body is not working effectively.
      Hormone imbalances can have a significant impact on the reproductive system, particularly in women.
      Another disorder, hypothyroidism, occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body’s needs. Insufficient thyroid hormone can cause many of the body’s functions to slow or shut down completely.

      NERVOUS SYSTEM: The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body.

      The nervous system includes both the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. The Central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord and The Peripheral nervous system is made up of the Somatic and the Autonomic nervous systems. The nervous system is the part of an animal’s body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.
      Nervous systems are found in most multicellular animals, but vary greatly in complexity.The only multicellular animals that have no nervous system at all are sponges, placozoans, and mesozoans, which have very simple body plans.

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