Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.
Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA(Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is identical. Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprinting to large scale protein production.
CLONING A GENE (Artificial)
When scientists clone an organism, they are making an exact genetic copy of the whole organism.
When scientists clone a gene, they isolate and make exact copies of just one of an organism’s genes. Cloning a gene usually involves copying the DNA sequence of that gene into a smaller, more easily manipulated piece of DNA, such as a plasmid.
Some researchers are looking at cloning as a way to create stem cells that are genetically identical to an individual. These cells could then be used for medical purposes, possibly even for growing whole organs. And stem cells cloned from someone with a disease could be grown in culture and studied to help researchers understand the disease and develop treatments.
Cloning can also occur Naturally;
some plants and single-celled organisms, such as bacteria, produce genetically identical offspring through a process called asexual reproduction. In asexual reproduction, a new individual is generated from a copy of a single cell from the parent organism.
Natural clones, also known as identical twins, occur in humans and other mammals. These twins are produced when a fertilized egg splits, creating two or more embryos that carry almost identical DNA. Identical twins have nearly the same genetic makeup as each other, but they are genetically different from either parent.
KEY NOTE: In 2013, scientists at Oregon Health and Science University were the first to use cloning techniques to successfully create human embryonic stem cells. The donor DNA came from an 8-month-old with a rare genetic disease.
WHAT IS SUPPLY CHAIN
A supply chain is a series of processes linked together to form a chain. It is the sequence of processes involved in the production and distribution of a commodity. The supply chain is the network created among different companies producing, handling and/or distributing a specific product. The supply chain encompasses the steps it takes to get a good or service from the supplier to the customer.
Supply chain begins with the ecological, biological, and political regulation of natural resources, followed by the human extraction of raw material, and includes several production links (e.g., component construction, assembly, and merging) before moving on to several layers of storage facilities of ever-decreasing size and increasingly remote geographical locations, and finally reaching the consumer.
KEY NOTE: Logistics is not supply chain. logistics refers to the distribution process within the company whereas the supply chain includes multiple companies such as suppliers, manufacturers, and the retailers.
A SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK
A supply chain network shows the links between organization and how information and materials flow between these links. The more detailed the supply chain network the more complex and web like the network becomes.
A supply chain network can be strategically designed in such a way as to reduce the cost of the supply chain; it has been suggested by experts that 80% of supply chain costs are determined by location of facilities and the flow of product between the facilities.Supply chain network design is sometimes referred to as ‘Network Modelling’, due to the fact a mathematical model can be created to optimize the supply chain network.
The two types of flow in a Supply Chain Network are:
- MATERIALS/CARGOES FLOW: Is the movement of goods from raw primary goods (such as Wool, Trees and Coal etc.) to complete goods (TV’s, Radios and Computers) that are to be delivered to the final customer.
- INFORMATION FLOW: Is the demand from the end-customer to preceding organizations in the network.
Supply chain allows Firms to move product from the source to the final point of consumption. Leading firms around the world, from large retailers to high-tech electronics manufacturers, have learned to use their supply chain as a strategic weapon.
A Virus is defined as a program inserted into another program. It gets activated by its host program. It replicates itself and spreads to others through floppy transfer. A virus infects data or program every time the user runs the infected program and the virus takes advantages and replicates itself.
There are two types of computer viruses ‘parasitic’ and ‘boot’ virus.
1. A Parasitic virus attaches itself to other programs and is activated when the host program is executed. It tries to get attached to more programs so that chances of getting activated is more. It spreads to other computers when the affected programs are copied. ‘Jerusalem’ and ‘Datacrime’ are parasitic viruses.
2. A Boot virus is designed to enter the boot sector of a floppy disc. It works by replacing the first sector on the disc with part of itself. It hides the rest of itself elsewhere on the disc, with a copy of the first sector. The virus is loaded by the computers built-in start-up program when the machine is switched on. The virus loads, installs itself, hides the rest of itself and then loads the original program. On a hard disc, virus can occupy DOS boot sector or master boot sector.
Some Reported Viruses
3. C-Brain: Amjad and Basit, two pakistani brothers, developed this software in January 1986 to discourage people from buying illegal software at throwaway prices. This was the most famous virus ever found and has a record of damaging few millions of personal computers. This is designed to stay in the boot sector of the disc or near zero sector. The virus enters the machine memory once the PC is booted with the infected floppy.
4. Macmag: This virus attacked Apple Macintosh computers only. Not much damage is reported because of this virus. This was not noticed on any IBM compatible PCs. It displayed a message of peace on the monitor and killed itself.
5. Cascade: This virus attacked IBM PCs and compatibles. The letters on the screen could be seen dropping vertically down to the bottom of screen after the virus picked them off in alphabetical order. This is a sort of parasitic virus. It attaches itself to other programs and gets activated when the host program is executed. It gets copied to other PCs when the programs are copied.
6. Jerusalem: Found in 1987 at Hebrew University, Jerusalem, this virus was designed to activate only on Friday, January 13 and delete all the files executed on that day. This infects the COM and EXE files. This is similar to Cascade virus in that it is parasitic in nature. This virus attaches itself to COM and EXE files to damage the data.
7. Daracrime/Columbus or October the 13th virus: This virus is similar to Jerusalem and was programmed to attack on October 13, 1989. Track zero of computer hard disk is destroyed and the contents of discs are rendered unreadable. This virus enters COM and EXE files and damages the hard disk. An antidote called ‘Vchecker’ was developed by the American Computer Society. Fortunately the virus was located in March 1989 itself and the damage reported after October 13 was minimal.
8. Bomb: This is also know as ‘Logic Bomb’ and ‘Time Bomb’. An event triggered routine in a program that causes a program to crash is defined as a ‘bomb’. Generally, ‘bomb’ is a software inserted in a program by a person working in the company.
TYPES OF ANTI VIRUS
Some types of anti virus are;
1.Microsoft Security Essentials: Released by Microsoft in late 2009, Microsoft Security Essentials sports more than a typically verbose Microsoft name: it’s also a really good antivirus. Lightweight enough to run on older machines without crippling their performance, yet competent enough to handle most viruses and malware out there.
2. AVG: Anti Virus Guard has become synonymous with free anti-virus, and there’s a reason for this: AVG offers complete malware protection, with considerably less bloat than the top pay-to-use antivirus clients. And while AVG Free does constantly remind you that you could pay for the professional version of the program, it does this without ever getting in the way of the program’s core purpose: protecting you from viruses.
3. Malwarebytes: This program doesn’t run in your system background and constantly protect you, but when you run into a problem running Malwarebytes will usually take care of what other programs can’t.
4. AVAST: This is one of the top free anti-viruses on the market, and for good reason: it’s remarkably complete. Expect great all-around protection, including against trojans and spyware. You can also expect constant reminders that there’s a free version you can upgrade to, on your desktop and in your inbox. Still, the protection is solid.
5. Comodo Firewall + Antivirus: Comodo is best known for its free firewall, but it also offers a bundled firewall and antivirus program. While the Comodo firewall isn’t the easiest to use, and the antivirus doesn’t include protection for non-virus forms of malware, this one’s worth mentioning if you’re looking for a free securitysuite which includes both a firewall and anti-virus protection.
The economic cycle is the natural fluctuation of the economy between periods of expansion (growth) and contraction (recession). Factors such as gross domestic product (GDP), interest rates, levels of employment and consumer spending can help to determine the current stage of the economic cycle. Economic cycle is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
STAGES IN ECONOMIC CYCLE
- Cyclicals and transports (near the beginning)
- Industrials (near the end)
- Industrials (near the beginning)
- Basic materials industry
- Energy (near the end)
- Energy (near the beginning)
- Services (near the end)
- Services (near the beginning)
- Cyclicals and transports (near the end)