How to Use Lemon to produce Electricity:
Introduction: The construction and working of the lemon
experiment can be compared to a conventional
battery having electrodes and electrolyte. “Lemon
battery”, as the experiment is popularly known,
requires two external metal electrodes in the same
way; however the electrolyte is supplied by the
lemon itself.
Two electrodes ( a zinc nail and a Copper Coin ),
A Juicy Lemon , which serve as Electrolyte,
A Voltmeter to measure the Current generated,
And a Wire.
In a conventional battery, the two electrodes are
two different metal pieces (Usually copper and
zinc), submerged in an acidic solution (electrolyte)
and connected through an external wiring to a
voltmeter or a small bulb. Similarly, for a “lemon
battery” experiment, two different metals in the
form of a zinc nail and a copper coin are inserted
into a juicy lemon. The lemon battery is also
known as a voltaic battery which produces
electricity by converting chemical energy to
electrical energy.
The juice of lemon is acidic in nature
and works as a powerful electrolyte. The lemon
itself serves as a reservoir for transfer of electrons
to and from the electrodes. When the two
electrodes, copper and zinc, are suspended in the
acidic lemon juice, the atomic structure of the
atoms of both the electrodes starts breaking,
resulting in production of individual electrons.
Note that electricity will be
generated only when the battery circuit gets
completed by external wiring. Also, it is not the
lemon which is the source of energy, but the
chemical change in the zinc that produces
electricity. The zinc electrode, when inside the
lemon, gets oxidized by releasing electrons and
goes to a lower energy state. This leads to the
transfer of electrons from a high energy state
electrode to a low energy state electrode. Thus,
lemon just serves as an environment for the
generation of electricity; however doesn’t produce
any electrons on its own.
Key Note: The voltage produced by a single lemon is very
small. However, a series of lemons can be used to
increase the voltage of the whole battery. A series
involving four lemon batteries can easily light an







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The Penalty for Ignorance is Lack


A hydraulic device is a device that uses liquids to transmit pressure equally from one point to another.

Hydraulic machines are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do simple work. Heavy equipment is a common example.
In this type of machine, hydraulic fluid is transmitted throughout the machine to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic cylinders and becomes pressurised according to the resistance present. The fluid is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes.

NOTE: Hydraulic machinery is operated by the use of hydraulics, where a liquid is the powering medium.

It is important that a hydraulic system contains no air bubbles. You may have heard about the need to “bleed the air out of the brake lines” of you car. If there is an air bubble in the system, then the force applied to the first piston gets used compressing the air in the bubble rather than moving the second piston, which has a big effect on the efficiency of the system.

Some examples of hydraulic devices include:
Jaws of life,
Metal shears,
Car crushers,
Automobile brakes,
Garbage compactors,
Log splitters,
Zero radius lawn tractors,
Bobcat tractors.

The Penalty for Ignorance is Lack


A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs , which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque , in most cases with teeth on the one gear being of identical shape, and often also with that shape on the other gear.
Nearly all mechanical devices rely on some form of gearing, and the key to a reliable gear is a good and appropriate design taking into account such factors as strength, wear resistance, noise, and fatigue resistance.


               Meshing Gears

Two or more gears working in a sequence (train) are called a gear train or, in many cases, a transmission ; such gear arrangements can produce a
mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a
simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with another gear; however, a gear can also mesh with a non-rotating toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing
translation instead of rotation.

1-Bevel gear:
These gears have teeth cut on a cone instead of a cylinder blank. They are used in pairs to transmit rotary motion and torque where the bevel gear shafts are at right angles (90 degree) to each other.
2-Crossed helical gear
These gears also transmit rotary motion and torque through a right angle. The teeth of a helical gear are inclined at an angle to the axis of rotation of the gear.
3-Worm and worm wheel
A gear which has one tooth is called worm. The tooth is in the form of a screw thread. A worm wheel meshes with the worm. The worm wheel is a helical gear with teeth inclined to that they can engage with the tread like worm. Like the cross helical gears, the worm and the worm wheel transmit torque and rotary motion through a right angle. The worm always drives the worm wheel and never the other way round. The mechanism locks if the worm wheel tries to drive the worm. Worm mechanism is very quiet running.
4-Helical gear
The gear is used for application that requires very quite and smooth running, at high rotational velocities. Parallel helical gears have their teeth inclined at a small angle to their axis of rotation. Each tooth is part of a spiral or helix. The helical gears have splines cut in their center holes. The gear can move along a splined shaft, although they rotate with the shaft. Double helical gears give an efficient transfer of torque and smooth motion at very high rotational velocities.
5-Spiral bevel gears
When it is necessary to transmit quietly and smoothly a large torque through a right angle at high velocities, spiral bevel gears can be used. Spiral bevel gears have teeth cut in helix spiral form on the surface of a cone. They are quieter running than straight bevel gears and have a longer life. Spiral bevel gears are used in motorcar axle gearboxes.
6-Internal gears
It is possible to cut gear teeth on the face of a gear wheel. Also, gear teeth can be cut the inclined of a gear ring. Internal gears have better load carrying capacity than external spur gear. They are safer in use because the teeth are guarded.
         Reference: Wikipedia ,

The Penalty for Ignorance is Lack


INTRODUCTION: Your digestive tract stretches from your mouth to your anus. It includes the organs necessary to digest food and process waste.

The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.
The tract consists of the stomach and intestines, and is divided into the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts.

Do you know that The whole digestive tract is about nine metres (30 feet) long?

The GI tract releases hormones from
enzymes to help regulate the digestive process. These hormones, including
gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin , and
ghrelin, are mediated through either
intracrine or autocrine mechanisms, indicating that the cells releasing these hormones are conserved structures throughout evolution .


Nutrients from the GI tract are not processed on-site; they are taken to the liver to be broken down further, stored, or distributed.

The Penalty for Ignorance is Lack

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